3-Bromopyruvate inhibits pancreatic tumor growth by stalling glycolysis, and dismantling mitochondria in a syngeneic mouse model
Tu, Kevin J.
Ko, Young H.
Shukla, Hem D.
JournalAmerican Journal of Cancer Research
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AbstractPancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth-most-deadly cancer in the United States with a 5-year survival rate of only 8%. The majority of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer undergo chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy (RT). However, current treatments are inadequate and novel strategies are desperately required. 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a promising anticancer drug against pancreatic cancer. It exerts potent anticancer effects by inhibiting hexokinase II enzyme (HK2) of the glycolytic pathway in cancer cells while not affecting the normal cells. 3-BP killed 95% of Panc-2 cells at 15 μM concentration and severely inhibited ATP production by disrupting the interaction between HK2 and mitochondrial Voltage Dependent Anion Channel-1 (VDAC1) protein. Electron microscopy data revealed that 3-BP severely damaged mitochondrial membrane in cancer cells. We further examined therapeutic effect of 3-BP in syngeneic mouse pancreatic cancer model by treating animals with 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg dose. 3-BP at 15 & 20 mg/kg dose level significantly reduced tumor growth by approximately 75-80% in C57BL/6 female mice. Immunohistochemistry data showed complete inhibition of hexokinase II (HK2) and TGFβ, in animals treated with 3-BP drug. We also observed enhanced expression of active caspase-3 in tumor tissues exhibited apoptotic death. Flow Cytometry analysis showed significant inhibition in MDSC (CD11b) population in treated tumor which may have allowed infiltration of CD8+ T cells and inhibited tumor growth. Notably, metabolomic data also revealed severe inhibition in glycolysis, NADP, ATP and lactic acid production in cancer cells treated with 40 μM 3-BP. Importantly, we also observed inhibition in lactic acid production responsible for tumor aggression. These results provide new evidence that 3-BP severely inhibit glucose metabolism in cancer cells by blocking hexokinase II, and disrupting mitochondria by suppressing BCL2L1 in pancreatic cancer.
DescriptionThe article processing charges (APC) for this open access article were partially funded by the Health Sciences and Human Services Library's Open Access Publishing Fund for Early-Career Researchers.
Rights/TermsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/21001
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