Scholarship & History
The UMB Digital Archive is a service of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL) that collects, preserves, and distributes the academic works of the University of Maryland, Baltimore. It is a place that digitally captures the historical record of the campus.
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The vaginal metabolome and microbiota of cervical HPV-positive and HPV-negative women: a cross-sectional analysisObjective: Characterise the vaginal metabolome of cervical HPV-infected and uninfected women. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: The Center for Health Behavior Research at the University of Maryland School of Public Health. Sample: Thirty-nine participants, 13 categorised as HPV-negative and 26 as HPV-positive (any genotype; HPV+), 14 of whom were positive with at least one high-risk HPV strain (hrHPV). Method: Self-collected mid-vaginal swabs were profiled for bacterial composition by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, metabolites by both gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and 37 types of HPV DNA. Main outcome measures: Metabolite abundances. Results: Vaginal microbiota clustered into Community State Type (CST) I (Lactobacillus crispatus-dominated), CST III (Lactobacillus iners-dominated), and CST IV (low-Lactobacillus, ‘molecular-BV’). HPV+ women had higher biogenic amine and phospholipid concentrations compared with HPV– women after adjustment for CST and cigarette smoking. Metabolomic profiles of HPV+ and HPV− women differed in strata of CST. In CST III, there were higher concentrations of biogenic amines and glycogen-related metabolites in HPV+ women than in HPV– women. In CST IV, there were lower concentrations of glutathione, glycogen, and phospholipid-related metabolites in HPV+ participants than in HPV–participants. Across all CSTs, women with hrHPV strains had lower concentrations of amino acids, lipids, and peptides compared with women who had only low-risk HPV (lrHPV). Conclusions: The vaginal metabolome of HPV+ women differed from HPV− women in terms of several metabolites, including biogenic amines, glutathione, and lipid-related metabolites. If the temporal relation between increased levels of reduced glutathione and oxidised glutathione and HPV incidence/persistence is confirmed in future studies, anti-oxidant therapies may be considered as a non-surgical HPV control intervention. Tweetable abstract: Metabolomics study: Vaginal microenvironment of HPV+ women may be informative for non-surgical interventions
Jumping translocations of chromosome 1q occurring by a multi-stage process in an acute myeloid leukemia progressed from myelodysplastic syndrome with a TET2 mutationBackground: Jumping translocations (JTs) are rare chromosome rearrangements characterized by re-localization of one donor chromosome to multiple recipient chromosomes. Here, we describe an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that progressed from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in association with acquisition of 1q JTs. The sequence of molecular and cytogenetic changes in our patient may provide a mechanistic model for the generation of JTs in leukemia. Case presentation: A 68-year-old man presented with pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy showed a hypercellular marrow with multilineage dysplasia, consistent with MDS, with no increase in blasts. Karyotype and MDS fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel were normal. Repeat bone marrow aspirate and biopsy after 8 cycles of azacitidine, with persistent pancytopenia, showed no changes in morphology, and karyotype was again normal. Myeloid mutation panel showed mutations in RUNX1, SRSF2, ASXL1, and TET2. Three years after diagnosis, he developed AML with myelodysplasia-related changes. Karyotype was abnormal, with unbalanced 1q JTs to the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 14 and 21, leading to gain of 1q. Conclusions: Our patient had MDS with pathogenic mutations of the RUNX1, SRSF2, ASXL1, and TET2 genes and developed 1q JTs at the time of progression from MDS to AML. Our data suggest that the formation of 1q JTs involves multiple stages and may provide a mechanistic model for the generation of JTs in leukemia. Copyright 2019 The Author(s).
Inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases biomarkers in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: A reviewHepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 180 million people worldwide and over 4 million people in the United States. HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and is recognized as a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many studies have shown increased prevalence of cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with chronic HCV infection (CHC), and though these markers may be used to risk stratify people for cardiac disease in the general population their role in the HCV population is unknown. Patients with CHC have elevated cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers compared to noninfected controls which may play a role in CVD risk stratification. We undertook a systematic review of inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers in people with HCV infection with a focus on the effect of CHC on serum levels of these markers and their utility as predictors of CVD in this population. Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles until June 2019. A total of 2430 results were reviewed with 115 studies included. Our review revealed that HCV infection significantly alters serum levels of markers of inflammation, endothelial function, and cardiac dysfunction prior to HCV treatment, and some of which may change in response to HCV therapy. Current risk stratification tools for development of CVD in the general population may not account for the increased inflammatory markers that appear to be elevated among HCV-infected patients contributing to increased CVD risk. Copyright 2019 The Authors.
Current state of and future opportunities for prediction in microbiome research: Report from the mid-atlantic microbiome meet-up in Baltimore on 9 january 2019Accurate predictions across multiple fields of microbiome research have far-reaching benefits to society, but there are few widely accepted quantitative tools to make accurate predictions about microbial communities and their functions. More discussion is needed about the current state of microbiome analysis and the tools required to overcome the hurdles preventing development and implementation of predictive analyses. We summarize the ideas generated by participants of the Mid-Atlantic Microbiome Meet-up in January 2019. While it was clear from the presentations that most fields have advanced beyond simple associative and descriptive analyses, most fields lack essential elements needed for the development and application of accurate microbiome predictions. Participants stressed the need for standardization, reproducibility, and accessibility of quantitative tools as key to advancing predictions in microbiome analysis. We highlight hurdles that participants identified and propose directions for future efforts that will advance the use of prediction in microbiome research. Copyright 2019 Sakowski et al.
The molecular and cellular mechanisms of depression: a focus on reward circuitryDepression is a complex disorder that takes an enormous toll on individual health. As affected individuals display a wide variation in their clinical symptoms, the precise neural mechanisms underlying the development of depression remain elusive. Although it is impossible to phenocopy every symptom of human depression in rodents, the preclinical field has had great success in modeling some of the core affective and neurovegetative depressive symptoms, including social withdrawal, anhedonia, and weight loss. Adaptations in select cell populations may underlie these individual depressive symptoms and new tools have expanded our ability to monitor and manipulate specific cell types. This review outlines some of the most recent preclinical discoveries on the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms in reward circuitry that underlie the expression of behavioral constructs relevant to depressive symptoms. Copyright 2019, Springer Nature Limited.