UMB Digital Archive

Scholarship & History

The UMB Digital Archive is a service of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL) that collects, preserves, and distributes the academic works of the University of Maryland, Baltimore. It is a place that digitally captures the historical record of the campus.

 

  • Plasma neurofilament light as blood marker for poor brain white matter integrity among middle-aged urban adults.

    Beydoun, May A; Noren Hooten, Nicole; Weiss, Jordan; Maldonado, Ana I; Beydoun, Hind A; Katzel, Leslie I; Davatzikos, Christos; Gullapalli, Rao P; Seliger, Stephen L; Erus, Guray; et al. (2022-10-21)
    Plasma neurofilament light chain (NfL)'s link to dementia may be mediated through white matter integrity (WMI). In this study, we examined plasma NfL's relationships with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging markers: global and cortical white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and trace (TR). Plasma NfL measurements at 2 times (v1: 2004-2009 and v2: 2009-2013) and ancillary dMRI (vscan: 2011-2015) were considered (n = 163, mean time v1 to vscan = 5.4 years and v2 to vscan: 1.1 years). Multivariable-adjusted regression models, correcting for multiple-testing revealed that, overall, higher NfLv1 was associated with greater global TR (β ± SE: +0.0000560 ± 0.0000186, b = 0.27, p = 0.003, q = 0.012), left frontal WM TR (β ± SE: + 0.0000706 ± 0.0000201, b ± 0.30, p = 0.001, q = 0.0093) and right frontal WM TR (β ± SE: + 0.0000767 ± 0.000021, b ± 0.31, p < 0.001, q = 0.0093). These associations were mainly among males and White adults. Among African American adults only, NfLv2 was associated with greater left temporal lobe TR. "Tracking high" in NfL was associated with reduced left frontal FA (Model 2, body mass index-adjusted: β ± SE:-0.01084 ± 0.00408, p = 0.009). Plasma NfL is a promising biomarker predicting future brain white matter integrity (WMI) in middle-aged adults.
  • A Simple One-Parameter Percent Dissolved Versus Time Dissolution Equation that Accommodates Sink and Non-sink Conditions via Drug Solubility and Dissolution Volume.

    Polli, James E (2022-11-17)
    In vitro dissolution generally involves sink conditions, so dissolution equations generally do not need to accommodate non-sink conditions. Greater use of biorelevant media, which are typically less able to provide sink conditions than pharmaceutical surfactants, necessitates equations that accommodate non-sink conditions. One objective was to derive an integrated, one-parameter dissolution equation for percent dissolved versus time that accommodates non-sink effects via drug solubility and dissolution volume parameters, including incomplete solubility. A second objective was to characterize the novel equation by fitting it to biorelevant dissolution profiles of tablets of two poorly water-soluble drugs, as well as by conducting simulations of the effect of dose on dissolution profile. The Polli dissolution equation was derived, [Formula: see text], where M0 is the drug dose (mg), cs is drug solubility (mg/ml), V is dissolution volume (ml), and kd is dissolution rate coefficient (ml/mg per min). Maximum allowable percent dissolved was determined by drug solubility and not a fitted extent of dissolution parameter. The equation fit tablet profiles in the presence and absence of sink conditions, using a single fitted parameter, kd, and where solubility ranged over a 1000-fold range. kd was generally smaller when cs was larger. FeSSGF provided relatively small kd values, reflecting FeSSGF colloids are large and slowly diffusing. Simulations showed impact of non-sink conditions, as well as plausible kd values for various cs scenarios, in agreement with observed kd values. The equation has advantages over first-order and z-factor dissolution rate equations. An Excel file for regression is provided.
  • Micronuclei in Circulating Tumor Associated Macrophages Predicts Progression in Advanced Colorectal Cancer.

    Kasabwala, Dimpal M; Bergan, Raymond C; Gardner, Kirby P; Lapidus, Rena; Tsai, Susan; Aldakkak, Mohammed; Adams, Daniel L (2022-11-11)
    Micronuclei (MN) are fragments of damaged nucleic acids which budded from a cell's nuclei as a repair mechanism for chromosomal instabilities, which within circulating white blood cells (cWBCs) signifies increased cancer risk, and in tumor cells indicates aggressive subtypes. MN form overtime and with therapy induction, which requires sequential monitoring of rarer cell subpopulations. We evaluated the peripheral blood (7.5 mL) for MN in Circulating Stromal Cells (CStCs) in a prospective pilot study of advanced colorectal cancer patients (n = 25), identifying MN by DAPI+ structures (&lt;3 µm) within the cellular cytoplasm. MN+ was compared to genotoxic induction, progression free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) hazard ratios (HR) over three years. MN were identified in 44% (n = 11/25) of CStCs, but were not associated with genotoxic therapies (p = 0.110) nor stage (p = 0.137). However, presence of MN in CStCs was independently prognostic for PFS (HR = 17.2, 95% CI 3.6-80.9, p = 0.001) and OS (HR = 70.3, 95% CI 6.6-752.8, p = 0.002), indicating a non-interventional mechanism in their formation. Additionally, MN formation did not appear associated with chemotherapy induction, but was correlated with tumor response. MN formation in colorectal cancer is an underlying biological mechanism that appears independent of chemotherapeutic genotoxins, changes during treatment, and predicts for poor clinical outcomes.
  • Resveratrol in Liquor Exacerbates Alcoholic Liver Injury with a Reduced Therapeutic Effect in Mice: An Unsupervised Herbal Wine Habit Is Risky.

    Zhang, Songxia; Xu, Ying; Ye, Mengling; Ye, Wenli; Xiao, Jian; Zhou, Honghao; Zhang, Wei; Shu, Yan; Huang, Yun; Chen, Yao (2022-11-10)
    People in Eastern countries hold a tradition of soaking herbal medicine in wine; however, the efficacy and safety of herbal wine have not been rigorously assessed. By assessing the efficacy of resveratrol (RSV) in ethanol against alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in mice, we aimed to offer a perspective on the use of herbal wine. To simulate the behaviour of herbal wine users, RSV (15 mg/kg) soaked in ethanol (RSV-alcohol) was administrated via gavage to the mice, here with alcohol consumption-induced ALD. RSV soaked in water (RSV-water) was the treatment control. The efficacy and safety of RSV on ALD were evaluated. Compared with the RSV-water group, a higher rate of mortality was found in the RSV-alcohol group (50.0% vs. 20.0%), which also exhibited more severe liver injury. RSV significantly increased the exposure of alcohol by 126.0%, which was accompanied by a significant inhibition of the ethanol metabolic pathway. In contrast, alcohol consumption significantly reduced exposure to RSV by 95.0%. Alcohol consumption had little effect on the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in RSV; however, alcohol seemed to reduce the absorption of RSV. RSV in liquor exacerbates alcoholic liver injury and has a reduced therapeutic effect, suggesting that the habit of herbal wine use without supervision is risky.
  • Vaginal microbiome-host interactions modeled in a human vagina-on-a-chip.

    Mahajan, Gautam; Doherty, Erin; To, Tania; Sutherland, Arlene; Grant, Jennifer; Junaid, Abidemi; Gulati, Aakanksha; LoGrande, Nina; Izadifar, Zohreh; Timilsina, Sanjay Sharma; et al. (2022-11-26)
    Background: A dominance of non-iners Lactobacillus species in the vaginal microbiome is optimal and strongly associated with gynecological and obstetric health, while the presence of diverse obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria and a paucity in Lactobacillus species, similar to communities found in bacterial vaginosis (BV), is considered non-optimal and associated with adverse health outcomes. Various therapeutic strategies are being explored to modulate the composition of the vaginal microbiome; however, there is no human model that faithfully reproduces the vaginal epithelial microenvironment for preclinical validation of potential therapeutics or testing hypotheses about vaginal epithelium-microbiome interactions. Results: Here, we describe an organ-on-a-chip (organ chip) microfluidic culture model of the human vaginal mucosa (vagina chip) that is lined by hormone-sensitive, primary vaginal epithelium interfaced with underlying stromal fibroblasts, which sustains a low physiological oxygen concentration in the epithelial lumen. We show that the Vagina Chip can be used to assess colonization by optimal L. crispatus consortia as well as non-optimal Gardnerella vaginalis-containing consortia, and to measure associated host innate immune responses. Co-culture and growth of the L. crispatus consortia on-chip was accompanied by maintenance of epithelial cell viability, accumulation of D- and L-lactic acid, maintenance of a physiologically relevant low pH, and down regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, co-culture of G. vaginalis-containing consortia in the vagina chip resulted in epithelial cell injury, a rise in pH, and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of applying human organ chip technology to create a preclinical model of the human vaginal mucosa that can be used to better understand interactions between the vaginal microbiome and host tissues, as well as to evaluate the safety and efficacy of live biotherapeutics products.

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