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The UMB Digital Archive is a service of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL) that collects, preserves, and distributes the academic works of the University of Maryland, Baltimore. It is a place that digitally captures the historical record of the campus.
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Canalicular adenoma with unicystic morphology. A rare entity.To our knowledge, only 11 additional cases of unicystic CA have been reported in the English-language literature. Although the exact clinical significance of unicystic morphology in CA is unknown, a tendency for occurrence within the context of multifocal tumors has been detected.
COVID-19 and Solid Organ Transplantation: A Review Article.The coronavirus pandemic has significantly impacted solid organ transplantation (SOT). Early in the outbreak period, transplant societies recommended suspending living kidney transplant programs in communities with widespread transmission to avoid exposing recipients to increased risk of immunosuppression, while recommendations were made to reserve deceased-donor kidney transplantation for likely life-saving indications. SOT recipients may be at high risk from COVID-19 disease due to chronic immunosuppressive treatment and other medical comorbidities. Mortality rates reported between 13 to over 30% in SOT recipients. In addition to high rates of complications and mortality attributable to COVID-19 infections, the pandemic has also led to additional complexities in transplantation including new questions regarding screening of donors and recipients, decision making to accept a patient for kidney transplant or wait after pandemic. The clinical implications of COVID-19 infection may also differ depending on the type of the transplanted organ and recipient comorbidities which further impacts decisions on continuing transplantation during the pandemic. Transplant activity during a pandemic should be tailored with careful selection of both donors and recipients. Furthermore, while tremendous strides have been made in treatment strategies and vaccinations, the impact of these in transplant recipients may be attenuated in the setting of their immunosuppression. In this review, we aim to summarize several aspects of COVID-19 in transplantation, including the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, clinical outcomes in SOT recipients, and end-stage kidney disease patients, transplant activity during the pandemic, and treatment options for COVID-19 disease.
Pain modulatory network is influenced by sex and age in a healthy state and during osteoarthritis progression in rats.Old age and female sex are risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic pain. We investigated the effects of sex and age on pain modulatory networks in a healthy state and during OA progression. We used functional MRI to determine the effects of sex and age on periaqueductal gray functional connectivity (PAG FC) in a healthy state (pre-OA) and during the early and late phases of monosodium iodoacetate-induced OA in rats. We then examined how sex and age affect longitudinal changes in PAG FC in OA. In a healthy state, females exhibited more widespread PAG FC than males, and this effect was exaggerated with aging. Young males had moderate PAG FC changes during the early phase but recruited additional brain regions, including the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), during the late phase. Young females exhibited widespread PAG FC in the early phase, which includes connections to insula, caudal ACC, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Older groups had strong PAG FC with fewer regions in the early phase, but they recruited additional brain regions, including NAc, in the late phase. Overall, our findings show that PAG FC is modulated by sex and age in a healthy state. A widespread PAG network in the early phase of OA pain may contribute to the transition from acute to chronic OA pain and the increased risk of developing chronic pain for females. Enhanced PAG FC with the reward system may represent a potential mechanism underlying chronic OA pain in elderly patients.
Evolution toward beta common chain receptor usage links the matrix proteins of HIV-1 and its ancestors to human erythropoietin.The HIV-1 matrix protein p17 (p17) is a pleiotropic molecule impacting on different cell types. Its interaction with many cellular proteins underlines the importance of the viral protein as a major determinant of human specific adaptation. We previously showed the proangiogenic capability of p17. Here, by integrating functional analysis and receptor binding, we identify a functional epitope that displays molecular mimicry with human erythropoietin (EPO) and promotes angiogenesis through common beta chain receptor (βCR) activation. The functional EPO-like epitope was found to be present in the matrix protein of HIV-1 ancestors SIV originated in chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and gorillas (SIVgor) but not in that of HIV-2 and its ancestor SIVsmm from sooty mangabeys. According to biological data, evolution of the EPO-like epitope showed a clear differentiation between HIV-1/SIVcpz-gor and HIV-2/SIVsmm branches, thus highlighting this epitope on p17 as a divergent signature discriminating HIV-1 and HIV-2 ancestors. P17 is known to enhance HIV-1 replication. Similarly to other βCR ligands, p17 is capable of attracting and activating HIV-1 target cells and promoting a proinflammatory microenvironment. Thus, it is tempting to speculate that acquisition of an epitope on the matrix proteins of HIV-1 ancestors capable of triggering βCR may have represented a critical step to enhance viral aggressiveness and early human-to-human SIVcpz/gor dissemination. The hypothesis that the p17/βCR interaction and βCR abnormal stimulation may also play a role in sustaining chronic activation and inflammation, thus marking the difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in term of pathogenicity, needs further investigation.
Clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of gastrointestinal stromal tumors with high progranulin expression.Background & aims Progranulin (PGRN) is known to promote tumorigenesis and proliferation of several types of cancer cells. However, little is known about the clinicopathological features of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with regard to PGRN expression. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with GISTs who underwent curative surgical resection between 2007 and 2017. PGRN expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis and semi-quantitatively categorized (no expression, 0; weak, 1+; moderate, 2+; strong, 3+). Tumors with a staining intensity of 2+ or 3+ were considered high PGRN expression. Results Fifty-four patients were analyzed; 31 patients (57%) were male. The median age at surgery was 60 years (range, 33–79), and the most common primary site was the stomach (67%). Thirty-five patients (65%) had spindle histology; 42 patients (78%) were separated as a high-risk group according to the modified National Institutes of Health (NIH) classification. High PGRN-expressing tumors were observed in 27 patients (50%), had more epithelioid/mixed histology (68% vs. 32%; p = 0.046), and KIT exon 11 mutations (76% vs. 24%; p = 0.037). Patients with high PGRN-expressing tumors had a worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) (36% of 5-year RFS) compared to those with low PGRN-expressing tumors (96%; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that high PGRN expression and old age (>60 years) were independent prognostic factors for poor RFS. Conclusions High PGRN-expressing GISTs showed more epithelioid/mixed histology and KIT exon 11 mutations. PGRN overexpression was significantly associated with poor RFS in patients with GISTs who underwent curative resection.