Scholarship & History
The UMB Digital Archive is a service of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL) that collects, preserves, and distributes the academic works of the University of Maryland, Baltimore. It is a place that digitally captures the historical record of the campus.
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Race/ethnicity-associated blood DNA methylation differences between Japanese and European American women: an exploratory studyBackground: Racial/ethnic disparities in health reflect a combination of genetic and environmental causes, and DNA methylation may be an important mediator. We compared in an exploratory manner the blood DNA methylome of Japanese Americans (JPA) versus European Americans (EUA). Methods: Genome-wide buffy coat DNA methylation was profiled among healthy Multiethnic Cohort participant women who were Japanese (JPA; n = 30) or European (EUA; n = 28) Americans aged 60-65. Differentially methylated CpGs by race/ethnicity (DM-CpGs) were identified by linear regression (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.1) and analyzed in relation to corresponding gene expression, a priori selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and blood biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism using Pearson or Spearman correlations (FDR < 0.1). Results: We identified 174 DM-CpGs with the majority of hypermethylated in JPA compared to EUA (n = 133), often in promoter regions (n = 48). Half (51%) of the genes corresponding to the DM-CpGs were involved in liver function and liver disease, and the methylation in nine genes was significantly correlated with gene expression for DM-CpGs. A total of 156 DM-CpGs were associated with rs7489665 (SH2B1). Methylation of DM-CpGs was correlated with blood levels of the cytokine MIP1B (n = 146). We confirmed some of the DM-CpGs in the TCGA adjacent non-tumor liver tissue of Asians versus EUA. Conclusion: We found a number of differentially methylated CpGs in blood DNA between JPA and EUA women with a potential link to liver disease, specific SNPs, and systemic inflammation. These findings may support further research on the role of DNA methylation in mediating some of the higher risk of liver disease among JPA.
Rates and predictors of data and code sharing in the medical and health sciences: Protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysisNumerous studies have demonstrated low but increasing rates of data and code sharing within medical and health research disciplines. However, it remains unclear how commonly data and code are shared across all fields of medical and health research, as well as whether sharing rates are positively associated with implementation of progressive policies by publishers and funders, or growing expectations from the medical and health research community at large. Therefore this systematic review aims to synthesise the findings of medical and health science studies that have empirically investigated the prevalence of data or code sharing, or both. Objectives include the investigation of: (i) the prevalence of public sharing of research data and code alongside published articles (including preprints), (ii) the prevalence of private sharing of research data and code in response to reasonable requests, and (iii) factors associated with the sharing of either research output (e.g., the year published, the publisher's policy on sharing, the presence of a data or code availability statement). It is hoped that the results will provide some insight into how often research data and code are shared publicly and privately, how this has changed over time, and how effective some measures such as the institution of data sharing policies and data availability statements have been in motivating researchers to share their underlying data and code.
Hyperkalemia management in the emergency department: An expert panel consensusHyperkalemia is a common electrolyte abnormality identified in the emergency department (ED) and potentially fatal. However, there is no consensus over the potassium threshold that warrants intervention or its treatment algorithm. Commonly used medications are at best temporizing measures, and the roles of binders are unclear in the emergent setting. As the prevalence of comorbid conditions altering potassium homeostasis rises, hyperkalemia becomes more common, and hence there is a need to standardize management. A panel was assembled to synthesize the available evidence and identify gaps in knowledge in hyperkalemia treatment in the ED. The panel was composed of 7 medical practitioners, including 5 physicians, a nurse, and a clinical pharmacist with collective expertise in the areas of emergency medicine, nephrology, and hospital medicine. This panel was sponsored by the American College of Emergency Physicians with a goal to create a consensus document for managing acute hyperkalemia. The panel evaluated the evidence on calcium for myocyte stabilization and potassium shifting and excretion. This article summarizes information on available therapies for hyperkalemia and proposes a hyperkalemia treatment algorithm for the ED practitioner based on the currently available literature and highlights diagnostic pitfalls and evidence gaps.
Tracing the Distribution of European Lactase Persistence Genotypes Along the AmericasIn adulthood, the ability to digest lactose, the main sugar present in milk of mammals, is a phenotype (lactase persistence) observed in historically herder populations, mainly Northern Europeans, Eastern Africans, and Middle Eastern nomads. As the -13910∗T allele in the MCM6 gene is the most well-characterized allele responsible for the lactase persistence phenotype, the -13910C > T (rs4988235) polymorphism is commonly evaluated in lactase persistence studies. Lactase non-persistent adults may develop symptoms of lactose intolerance when consuming dairy products. In the Americas, there is no evidence of the consumption of these products until the arrival of Europeans. However, several American countries' dietary guidelines recommend consuming dairy for adequate human nutrition and health promotion. Considering the extensive use of dairy and the complex ancestry of Pan-American admixed populations, we studied the distribution of -13910C > T lactase persistence genotypes and its flanking haplotypes of European origin in 7,428 individuals from several Pan-American admixed populations. We found that the -13910∗T allele frequency in Pan-American admixed populations is directly correlated with allele frequency of the European sources. Moreover, we did not observe any overrepresentation of European haplotypes in the -13910C > T flanking region, suggesting no selective pressure after admixture in the Americas. Finally, considering the dominant effect of the -13910∗T allele, our results indicate that Pan-American admixed populations are likely to have higher frequency of lactose intolerance, suggesting that general dietary guidelines deserve further evaluation across the continent.