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The UMB Digital Archive is a service of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL) that collects, preserves, and distributes the academic works of the University of Maryland, Baltimore. It is a place that digitally captures the historical record of the campus.
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Multi-Generational Review of Oncologic Tumors in a Family With TP53 Mutation Presenting With a Pediatric Patient With Osteosarcoma and Lung Acinar Adenocarcinoma.TP53 mutation, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), is a syndrome that leads to a hereditary cancer predisposition. Here we describe the case of a 13-year-old male who presented with osteosarcoma, family history of LFS, who developed a second primary tumor of the lung. No other similar cases have been reported. After this osteosarcoma diagnosis, he had pre-operative imaging, which included a positron emission tomography (PET) combined with CT (PET/CT) chest. This revealed a subpleural nodule in the lung of unclear etiology. After completing initial therapy, a repeat chest CT showed that the nodule persisted. Pathology revealed an acinar adenocarcinoma. This tumor is not common in pediatric LFS patients.
Regulation of the Muscarinic M Receptor by Myocardin-Related Transcription FactorsMyocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs: myocardin/MYOCD, MRTF-A/MRTFA, and MRTF-B/MRTFB) are co-factors of serum response factor (SRF) that activate the smooth muscle cell (SMC) gene program and that play roles in cardiovascular development and mechanobiology. Gain and loss of function experiments have defined the SMC gene program under control of MRTFs, yet full understanding of their impact is lacking. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the muscarinic M3 receptor (CHRM3) is regulated by MRTFs together with SRF. Forced expression of MYOCD (8d) in human coronary artery (SMC) followed by RNA-sequencing showed increased levels of M2, M3, and M5 receptors (CHRM2: 2-fold, CHRM3: 16-fold, and CHRM5: 2-fold). The effect of MYOCD on M3 was confirmed by RT-qPCR using both coronary artery and urinary bladder SMCs, and correlation analyses using human transcriptomic datasets suggested that M3 may also be regulated by MRTF-B. Head-to-head comparisons of MYOCD, MRTF-A and MRTF-B, argued that while all MRTFs are effective, MRTF-B is the most powerful transactivator of CHRM3, causing a 600-fold increase at 120h. Accordingly, MRTF-B conferred responsiveness to the muscarinic agonist carbachol in Ca2+ imaging experiments. M3 was suppressed on treatment with the MRTF-SRF inhibitor CCG-1423 using SMCs transduced with either MRTF-A or MRTF-B and using intact mouse esophagus in culture (by 92±2%). Moreover, silencing of SRF with a short hairpin reduced CHRM3 (by >60%) in parallel with α-actin (ACTA2). Tamoxifen inducible knockout of Srf in smooth muscle reduced Srf (by 54±4%) and Chrm3 (by 41±6%) in the urinary bladder at 10days, but Srf was much less reduced or unchanged in aorta, ileum, colon, trachea, and esophagus. Longer induction (21d) further accentuated the reduction of Chrm3 in the bladder and ileum, but no change was seen in the aorta. Single cell RNA-sequencing revealed that Mrtfb dominates in ECs, while Myocd dominates in SMCs, raising the possibility that Chrm3 may be driven by Mrtfb-Srf in the endothelium and by Myocd-Srf in SMCs. These findings define a novel transcriptional control mechanism for muscarinic M3 receptors in human cells, and in mice, that could be targeted for therapy.
Effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients with obesity and diabetesAims: To compare clinical outcomes of rivaroxaban and warfarin in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and concurrent obesity and diabetes. Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years were identified from a healthcare claims database with the following criteria: newly initiating rivaroxaban or warfarin, ≥1 medical claim with a diagnosis of AF, obesity determined by validated machine learning algorithm, and ≥1 claim with a diagnosis of diabetes or for antidiabetic medication. Treatment cohorts were matched using propensity scores and were compared for stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: A total of 9999 matched pairs of NVAF patients with obesity and diabetes who initiated treatment with rivaroxaban or warfarin were included. The composite risk of stroke/SE was significantly lower in the rivaroxaban cohort compared with the warfarin cohort (HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.74-0.90). Risks of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes were also significantly reduced with rivaroxaban versus warfarin, but not SE. Major bleeding risk was similar between treatment cohorts (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.78-1.09). Conclusions: In NVAF patients with comorbidities of obesity and diabetes, rivaroxaban was associated with lower risks of stroke/SE and similar risk of major bleeding versus warfarin.
Introduction to the Site-specific Etiologic Results From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) StudyThe Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study evaluated the etiology of severe and very severe pneumonia in children hospitalized in 7 African and Asian countries. Here, we summarize the highlights of in-depth site-specific etiology analyses published separately in this issue, including how etiology varies by age, mortality status, malnutrition, severity, HIV status, and more. These site-specific results impart important lessons that can inform disease control policy implications.
7,8-Dihydroxyflavone improves neuropathological changes in the brain of Tg26 mice, a model for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorderThe combined antiretroviral therapy era has significantly increased the lifespan of people with HIV (PWH), turning a fatal disease to a chronic one. However, this lower but persistent level of HIV infection increases the susceptibility of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Therefore, research is currently seeking improved treatment for this complication of HIV. In PWH, low levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with worse neurocognitive impairment. Hence, BDNF administration has been gaining relevance as a possible adjunct therapy for HAND. However, systemic administration of BDNF is impractical because of poor pharmacological profile. Therefore, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of BDNF-mimicking 7,8 dihydroxyflavone (DHF), a bioactive high-affinity TrkB agonist, in the memory-involved hippocampus and brain cortex of Tg26 mice, a murine model for HAND. In these brain regions, we observed astrogliosis, increased expression of chemokine HIV-1 coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial damage. Hippocampi and cortices of DHF treated mice exhibited a reversal of these pathological changes, suggesting the therapeutic potential of DHF in HAND. Moreover, our data indicates that DHF increases the phosphorylation of TrkB, providing new insights about the role of the TrkB-Akt-NFkB signaling pathway in mediating these pathological hallmarks. These findings guide future research as DHF shows promise as a TrkB agonist treatment for HAND patients in adjunction to the current antiviral therapies.