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The UMB Digital Archive is a service of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL) that collects, preserves, and distributes the academic works of the University of Maryland, Baltimore. It is a place that digitally captures the historical record of the campus.
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Sleep and ADHD: Incorporating Research into Clinical Practice (A Rapid Systematic Review of the Literature)Sleep is a critically important topic for individuals with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as well as their therapists, coaches, and healthcare providers. A clear understanding of the interconnectedness between ADHD and sleep is critical as part of comprehensive services provided by practitioners in any setting. This rapid systematic literature review identified 13 studies (published in 2016) that examine the relationship between ADHD and sleep in young adults and adults.
Associations of autozygosity with a broad range of human phenotypesIn many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (FROH) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that FROH is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: FROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of FROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in FROH is independent of all environmental confounding. Copyright 2019, The Author(s).
Individual differences in pain sensitivity are associated with cognitive network functional connectivity following one night of experimental sleep disruptionPrevious work suggests that sleep disruption can contribute to poor pain modulation. Here, we used experimental sleep disruption to examine the relationship between sleep disruption-induced pain sensitivity and functional connectivity (FC) of cognitive networks contributing to pain modulation. Nineteen healthy individuals underwent two counterbalanced experimental sleep conditions for one night each: uninterrupted sleep versus sleep disruption. Following each condition, participants completed functional MRI including a simple motor task and a noxious thermal stimulation task. Pain ratings and stimulus temperatures from the latter task were combined to calculate a pain sensitivity change score following sleep disruption. This change score was used as a predictor of simple motor task FC changes using bilateral executive control networks (RECN, LECN) and the default mode network (DMN) masks as seed regions of interest (ROIs). Increased pain sensitivity after sleep disruption was positively associated with increased RECN FC to ROIs within the DMN and LECN (F(4,14) = 25.28, pFDR = 0.05). However, this pain sensitivity change score did not predict FC changes using LECN and DMN masks as seeds (pFDR > 0.05). Given that only RECN FC was associated with sleep loss-induced hyperalgesia, findings suggest that cognitive networks only partially contribute to the sleep-pain dyad. Copyright 2019 The Authors.
CCR5 receptor antagonism inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitroBackground and aim The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-strand RNA virus that infects millions of people worldwide. Recent advances in therapy have led to viral cure using two- and three- drug combinations of direct acting inhibitors of viral replication. CCR5 is a chemokine receptor that is expressed on hepatocytes and represents a key co-receptor for HIV. We evaluated the effect of CCR5 blockade or knockdown on HCV replication in Huh7.5JFH1 cells. Methods Cells were exposed to varying concentrations of maraviroc (CCR5 inhibitor), cenicriviroc (CCR2/CCR5 inhibitor), sofosbuvir (nucleotide polymerase inhibitor), or raltegravir (HIV integrase inhibitor). Results HCV RNA was detected utilizing two qualitative strand-specific RT-PCR assays. HCV core antigen and NS3 protein was quantified in the supernatant and cell lysate, respectively. siRNA was utilized to knockdown CCR5 gene expression in hepatocytes. Alternatively, anti-CCR5 antibodies were employed to block the receptor. Supernatant levels of HCV RNA (expressed as fold change) were not reduced in the presence of raltegravir but were reduced 8.55-fold and 12.42-fold with cenicriviroc and maraviroc, respectively. Sofosbuvir resulted in a 16.20- fold change in HCV RNA levels. HCV core and NS3 protein production was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Two distinct anti-CCR5 antibodies also resulted in a significant reduction in HCV protein expression, as did siRNA knockdown of CCR5 gene expression. Conclusions These data provide evidence that CCR5 modulation could have a significant effect on HCV replication in an in vitro system. Further evaluation of the role of CCR5 inhibition in clinical settings may be warranted. Copyright 2019 Blackard et al.