What is the UMB Digital Archive?
The UMB Digital Archive is a service of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL) that collects, preserves, and distributes the academic works of the University of Maryland, Baltimore. It is a place that digitally captures the historical record of the campus.
The Archive contains many types of content, including grey literature (materials that cannot be found easily through conventional systems of publication), dissertations and theses, annual reports, historical images, oral histories and more.
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Delta Vs Gamma auditory steady state synchrony in schizophrenia(Oxford University Press, 2018)Background: Delta band (1-4 Hz) neuronal responses support the precision and stability of auditory processing, and a deficit in delta band synchrony may be relevant to auditory domain symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Methods: Delta band synchronization elicited by a 2.5 Hz auditory steady state response (ASSR) paradigm, along with those from theta (5 Hz), alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz), gamma (40 Hz), and high gamma (80 Hz) frequency ASSR, were compared in 128 patients with schizophrenia, 108 healthy controls, and 55 first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients. Results: Delta band synchronization was significantly impaired in patients compared with controls (F = 18.3, P < .001). There was a significant 2.5 Hz by 40 Hz ASSR interaction (P = .023), arising from a greater reduction of 2.5 Hz ASSR than of 40 Hz ASSR, in patients compared with controls. Greater deficit in delta ASSR was associated with auditory perceptual abnormality (P = .007) and reduced verbal working memory (P < .001). Gamma frequency ASSR impairment was also significant but more modest (F = 8.7, P = .004), and this deficit was also present in FDR (P = .022). Conclusions: The ability to sustain delta band oscillation entrainment in the auditory pathway is significantly reduced in schizophrenia patients and appears to be clinically relevant. Copyright The Author(s) 2017.
Characterization of the Theileria parva sporozoite proteome(Elsevier Ltd, 2018)East Coast fever is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva. The sporozoite stage of this parasite, harboured and released from the salivary glands of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus during feeding, invades and establishes infection in bovine lymphocytes. Blocking this initial stage of invasion presents a promising vaccine strategy for control of East Coast fever and can in part be achieved by targeting the major sporozoite surface protein p67. To support research on the biology of T. parva and the identification of additional candidate vaccine antigens, we report on the sporozoite proteome as defined by LC�MS/MS analysis. In total, 4780 proteins were identified in an enriched preparation of sporozoites. Of these, 2007 were identified as T. parva proteins, representing close to 50% of the total predicted parasite proteome. The remaining 2773 proteins were derived from the tick vector. The identified sporozoite proteins include a set of known T. parva antigens targeted by antibodies and cytotoxic T cells from cattle that are immune to East Coast fever. We also identified proteins predicted to be orthologs of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite surface molecules and invasion organelle proteins, and proteins that may contribute to the phenomenon of bovine lymphocyte transformation. Overall, these data establish a protein expression profile of T. parva sporozoites as an important starting point for further study of a parasitic species which has considerable agricultural impact. Copyright 2018 The Authors
Novel self-etch adhesive with antibacterial and protein-repellent functions to prevent enamel demineralization(Japanese Society for Dental Materials and Devices, 2018)Enamel demineralization is the most undesired side-effect of fixed orthodontic treatments. This study were to develop a novel adhesive that is self-etching instead of using the traditional etching method, and to form a sealant on the enamel to prevent demineralization. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and quaternary ammonium dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) were mixed into a self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One, 3M, St. Paul, MN, USA; referred to as AEO). Enamel shear bond strength (SBS) was measured. Protein adsorption onto the resins was measured. An oral microcosm biofilm model with saliva was tested. Incorporation of 7.5% MPC and 5% DMAHDM into AEO did not reduce the SBS (p>0.1). AEO with 7.5% MPC+5% DMAHDM had protein adsorption that was only 1/18 that of AEO control. AEO with 7.5% MPC+5% DAMHDM had much stronger antibacterial properties (p<0.05). In conclusion, the new self-etch adhesive with MPC and DAMHDM greatly reduced protein adsorption and inhibited biofilm viability. Copyright 2018, Japanese Society for Dental Materials and Devices. All rights reserved.
Mutations in Diphosphoinositol-Pentakisphosphate Kinase PPIP5K2 are associated with hearing loss in human and mouse(Public Library of Science, 2018)Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Here, we report a severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss locus, DFNB100 on chromosome 5q13.2-q23.2. Exome enrichment followed by massive parallel sequencing revealed a c.2510G>A transition variant in PPIP5K2 that segregated with DFNB100-associated hearing loss in two large apparently unrelated Pakistani families. PPIP5Ks enzymes interconvert 5-IP7 and IP8, two key members of the inositol pyrophosphate (PP-IP) cell-signaling family. Their actions at the interface of cell signaling and bioenergetic homeostasis can impact many biological processes. The c.2510G>A transition variant is predicted to substitute a highly invariant arginine residue with histidine (p.Arg837His) in the phosphatase domain of PPIP5K2. Biochemical studies revealed that the p.Arg837His variant reduces the phosphatase activity of PPIP5K2 and elevates its kinase activity. We found that in mouse inner ear, PPIP5K2 is expressed in the cochlear and vestibular sensory hair cells, supporting cells and spiral ganglion neurons. Mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the Ppip5k2 phosphatase domain exhibit degeneration of cochlear outer hair cells and elevated hearing thresholds. Our demonstration that PPIP5K2 has a role in hearing in humans indicates that PP-IP signaling is important to hair cell maintenance and function within inner ear. Copyright 2018 Public Library of Science. All Rights Reserved.