Scholarship & History
The UMB Digital Archive is a service of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL) that collects, preserves, and distributes the academic works of the University of Maryland, Baltimore. It is a place that digitally captures the historical record of the campus.
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Intracranial Efficacy of Selpercatinib in Fusion-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers on the LIBRETTO-001 TrialWe report the intracranial efficacy of selpercatinib, a highly potent and selective RET inhibitor, approved in the United States for RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).
Analysis of prolactin and sexual side effects in patients with schizophrenia who switched from paliperidone palmitate to aripiprazole lauroxilOne strategy to address hyperprolactinemia and associated sexual side effects in patients receiving antipsychotics is switching to an antipsychotic not associated with prolactin elevation (eg, aripiprazole). This post hoc analysis assessed prolactin concentrations and sexual side effects in an open-label prospective study of switching long-acting injectable antipsychotics from paliperidone palmitate (PP) to aripiprazole lauroxil (AL). Serum prolactin was measured throughout the study. Patient-reported sexual and endocrine side effects were assessed on the UKU Side Effect Rating Scale sexual function subscale and analyzed in study completers. Prior to starting AL treatment (screening), 49/50 (98%) patients had prolactin concentrations above the upper limit of normal (ULN; >13.13 ng/mL [males]; >26.72 ng/mL [females]). Six months after beginning AL treatment, prolactin levels were above ULN in 2/32 (6.3%) patients. Among 32 study completers, 81.3% reported sexual dysfunction in ≥1 domain at screening versus 56.3% at 6 months after starting AL treatment. Diminished sexual desire was the most common patient-reported sexual complaint at screening (46.9%); at 6 months, it was reported by 18.8%. In this post hoc analysis, the high levels of prolactin observed at screening decreased during AL treatment, and modest improvements in sexual side effects were evident in patients with schizophrenia.
Understanding individual SARS-CoV-2 proteins for targeted drug development against COVID-19SARS-CoV-2 causes the COVID-19 pandemic responsible for millions of deaths globally. Even with effective vaccines, the SARS-CoV-2 virus will likely maintain a hold in the human population through gaps in efficacy and vaccination and arising new strains. Therefore, understanding how SARS-Cov-2 causes such wide-spread tissue damage and developing targeted pharmacological treatments will be critical in fighting this virus and preparing for future outbreaks. Herein, we summarize the progress made thus far by using in vitro or in vivo models to investigate individual SARS-CoV-2 proteins and their pathogenic mechanisms. We grouped the SARS-CoV-2 proteins into three categories: host-entry, self-acting and host-interacting. This review focuses on the self-acting and host-interacting SARS-CoV-2 proteins and summarizes current knowledge on how these proteins promote virus replication and disrupt host systems, as well as drugs that target these virus- and interacting host proteins. Many of these drugs are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. Future coronavirus outbreaks will mostly likely be caused by new virus strains that evade the vaccines through mutations in host-entry proteins. Therefore, study of individual self-acting and host-interacting SARS-CoV-2 proteins for targeted therapeutic interventions is not only essential for fighting COVID-19, but also valuable against future coronavirus outbreaks.
Evaluation of post-introduction COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness: Summary of interim guidance of the World Health OrganizationPhase 3 randomized-controlled trials have provided promising results of COVID-19 vaccine efficacy, ranging from 50 to 95% against symptomatic disease as the primary endpoints, resulting in emergency use authorization/listing for several vaccines. However, given the short duration of follow-up during the clinical trials, strict eligibility criteria, emerging variants of concern, and the changing epidemiology of the pandemic, many questions still remain unanswered regarding vaccine performance. Post-introduction vaccine effectiveness evaluations can help us to understand the vaccine's effect on reducing infection and disease when used in real-world conditions. They can also address important questions that were either not studied or were incompletely studied in the trials and that will inform evolving vaccine policy, including assessment of the duration of effectiveness; effectiveness in key subpopulations, such as the very old or immunocompromised; against severe disease and death due to COVID-19; against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern; and with different vaccination schedules, such as number of doses and varying dosing intervals. WHO convened an expert panel to develop interim best practice guidance for COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness evaluations. We present a summary of the interim guidance, including discussion of different study designs, priority outcomes to evaluate, potential biases, existing surveillance platforms that can be used, and recommendations for reporting results.