Now showing items 1-20 of 12647

    • Management of Visual Dysfunction in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

      Savitt, Joseph; Aouchiche, Rachid (IOS Press, 2020-09-01)
      Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder with many symptoms responsive to treatment with dopamine agonists, anti-cholinergics and the dopamine precursor, levodopa. The cardinal features of PD include tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. There also are non-motor features that include sleep disorders, cognitive and affective dysfunction, hyposmia, pain and dysautonomia (constipation, bloating, orthostasis, urinary symptoms, sexual dysfunction, dysphagia). Among these non-motor features are signs and symptoms of visual system impairment that range from subtle examination findings to those causing severe disability. In this review we describe common PD-related abnormalities in the visual system, how they present, and potential treatments.
    • Remission from nicotine dependence among people with severe mental illness who received help/services for tobacco/nicotine use

      Alghzawi, Hamzah; Trinkoff, Alison; Zhu, Shijun; Storr, Carla (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020-09-18)
      Objectives: A growing body of evidence supports pharmacological interventions to assist smoking cessation in people with severe mental illness (SMI); that is, lifetime major depressive disorder, bipolar disorders, or schizophrenia. Little is known about whether behavioral services are also associated with high probability of remission from nicotine dependence as compared to other types of help/services received (pharmacological, behavioral, or both). Methods: A sample of 726 American lifetime adult smokers with SMI and a history of nicotine dependence, who received help/services for tobacco/nicotine use, were identified. These data came from a limited public use dataset, the 2012–2013 NESARC-III. Survival analysis was used to compare the probability of remission from nicotine dependence and the time needed for full remission from nicotine dependence by type of help/services received for tobacco/nicotine use. Results: Remission was more frequent among those who received behavioral services. In addition, the average time from onset of nicotine dependence until full remission from nicotine dependence was shorter among those who received behavioral services. Conclusions: The current study suggests a clinical need for behavioral interventions to promote the probability of remission from nicotine dependence among smokers with SMI. Health care providers could play a role in educating and encouraging smokers with SMI to seek and utilize behavioral services.
    • Cultural complications: Why, how, and lessons learned

      Harris, Chelsea A; Dimick, Justin B; Dossett, Lesly A (Elsevier Ltd., 2020-09-08)
    • Differences between blacks and whites in well-being, beliefs, emotional states, behaviors and survival, 1978-2014

      Zafari, Zafar; Keyes, Katherine M; Jiao, Boshen; Williams, Sharifa Z; Muennig, Peter Alexander (Public Library of Science, 2020-09-14)
      OBJECTIVES: Material well-being, beliefs, and emotional states are believed to influence one's health and longevity. In this paper, we explore racial differences in self-rated health, happiness, trust in others, feeling that society is fair, believing in God, frequency of sexual intercourse, educational attainment, and percent in poverty and their association with mortality. STUDY DESIGNS: Age-period-cohort (APC) study. METHODS: Using data from the 1978-2014 General Social Survey-National Death Index (GSS-NDI), we conducted APC analyses using generalized linear models to quantify the temporal trends of racial differences in our selected measures of well-being, beliefs, and emotional states. We then conducted APC survival analysis using mixed-effects Cox proportional hazard models to quantify the temporal trends of racial differences in survival after removing the effects of racial differences in our selected measures. RESULTS: For whites, the decline in happiness was steeper than for blacks despite an increase in high school graduation rates among whites relative to blacks over the entire period, 1978-2010. Self-rated health increased in whites relative to blacks from 1978 through 1989 but underwent a relative decline thereafter. After adjusting for age, sex, period effects, and birth cohort effects, whites, overall, had higher rates of self-rated health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.63, 2.16), happiness (OR = 2.05; 1.77, 2.36), and high school graduation (OR = 2.88; 2.34, 3.53) compared with blacks. Self-rated health, happiness, and high school graduation also mediated racial differences in survival over time. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that some racial differences in survival could be partly mitigated by eliminating racial differences in health, happiness, and educational attainment. Future research is needed to analyze longitudinal clusters and identify causal mechanisms by which social, behavioral, and economic interventions can reduce survival differences.
    • Impact of Four Common Hydrogels on Amyloid-β (Aβ) Aggregation and Cytotoxicity: Implications for 3D Models of Alzheimer's Disease

      Simpson, Laura W; Szeto, Gregory L; Boukari, Hacene; Good, Theresa A; Leach, Jennie B (American Chemical Society, 2020-08-06)
      The physiochemical properties of hydrogels utilized in 3D culture can be used to modulate cell phenotype and morphology with a striking resemblance to cellular processes that occur in vivo. Indeed, research areas including regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, in vitro cancer models, and stem cell differentiation have readily utilized 3D biomaterials to investigate cell biological questions. However, cells are only one component of this biomimetic milieu. In many models of disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) that could benefit from the in vivo-like cell morphology associated with 3D culture, other aspects of the disease such as protein aggregation have yet to be methodically considered in this 3D context. A hallmark of AD is the accumulation of the peptide amyloid-β (Aβ), whose aggregation is associated with neurotoxicity. We have previously demonstrated the attenuation of Aβ cytotoxicity when cells were cultured within type I collagen hydrogels versus on 2D substrates. In this work, we investigated the extent to which this phenomenon is conserved when Aβ is confined within hydrogels of varying physiochemical properties, notably mesh size and bioactivity. We investigated the Aβ structure and aggregation kinetics in solution and hydrogels composed of type I collagen, agarose, hyaluronic acid, and polyethylene glycol using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and thioflavin T assays. Our results reveal that all hydrogels tested were associated with enhanced Aβ aggregation and Aβ cytotoxicity attenuation. We suggest that confinement itself imparts a profound effect, possibly by stabilizing Aβ structures and shifting the aggregate equilibrium toward larger species. If this phenomenon of altered protein aggregation in 3D hydrogels can be generalized to other contexts including the in vivo environment, it may be necessary to reevaluate aspects of protein aggregation disease models used for drug discovery.
    • Correction to: Corneal Epithelial Findings in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Treated with Antibody–Drug Conjugate Belantamab Mafodotin in the Pivotal, Randomized, DREAMM-2 Study (Ophthalmology and Therapy, (2020), 10.1007/s40123-020-00280-8)

      Farooq, Asim V.; Degli Esposti, Simona; Popat, Rakesh; Thulasi, Praneetha; Lonial, Sagar; Nooka, Ajay K.; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Sborov, Douglas; Zaugg, Brian E.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-09-12)
      The authors of the above mentioned article would like to highlight the corrections in https://doi.org/10.1007/s40123-020-00289-z, based upon recent changes to the FDA label and guidance on the use of belamaf.
    • Targeting HIV/SIV infection of CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) Cells: BCL6 inhibition represses HIV infection CD4+ T cells and reduces germinal center hyperplasia in rhesus macaque

      Cai, Y.; Abdel-Mohsen, M.; Watkins, M.; Xue, F.; Ai, Y.; Cheng, H.; Midkiff, C.; Tomescu, C.; Wang, X.; Alvarez, X.; et al. (Mediscript Ltd, 2019-07-01)
    • Virtual Face to Face with Dr. Bruce Jarrell: New Community Engagement Center

      Jarrell, Bruce E.; Valis, Ashley; Roper, Tyrone; Likowski, Alex (2020-09-18)
    • Virtual Face to Face with Dr. Bruce Jarrell: Arts and the Pandemic: How Artwork Can Relieve Stress During COVID-19

      Jarrell, Bruce E.; Mishler, Oksana; Hagar, Erin; Hammett, Roosevelt; Likowski, Alex (2020-09-10)
    • Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) Annual Report 2020: Part 2 - Profiles of Work Outcomes on 10 Context Factor of EAP Counseling Use.

      Attridge, Mark (Morneau Shepell, 2020-08)
      This is the fourth in the series of annual reports on the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS). The 2020 Report is the second year that Morneau Shepell has had the privilege of collaborating with Dr. Mark Attridge on its completion. Usage of the WOS is increasing since it was introduced in 2010 and this year’s report is more robust than ever representing over 35,000 counseling cases globally. The Part 1 Report presents the primary results and study methodology. The Part 2 Report focuses on ten context factors associated with EAP use and provides detailed statistical profiles of WOS outcomes by subgroups of users on various factors. The effectiveness of EAP counseling is robust across almost all of the contexts with data to test. The extent of improvement from before to after counseling on WOS measures was generally consistent across client age and sex, across the clinical factors of the type of issue, the number of clinical sessions used, the total duration of the time period of the treatment period, and the source of referral into the EAP, and across different employer conditions of industry and whether the EAP was provided by an external vendor, internal staff, or a hybrid model.
    • Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) Annual Report 2020: Part 1 - Decade of Data on EAP Counseling Reveals Prominence of Presenteeism.

      Attridge, Mark (Morneau Shepell, 2020-08)
      Report 1 of 2. The Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) industry profile is made up of data contributed by multiple providers worldwide since year 2010. This white paper is the forth in an annual series of reports on the Workplace Outcome Suite that first started in 2016. This study looks at six outcomes from the WOS: (1) Work Presenteeism, (2) Work Absenteeism, (3) Workplace Distress, (4) Work Engagement, (5) Life Satisfaction, and (6) a new measure that combines the results of the absenteeism and presenteeism data converted into hours of Lost Productive Time (LPT) at work. This report features 35,693 employees with self-reported data collected at before and after a counseling intervention provided by an employee assistance program (EAP). The data was collected over a period of 10 years, between 2010 and 2019. A total of 38 different sources provided valid data on all five WOS measures, with 20 EAP vendors, 17 employer-based programs and one industry group of external vendors in the United States. Although 26 different countries are represented, 95% of the total cases are from only four countries with almost three-fourths of the total from just one country - the United States (72%). China (22%) and New Zealand (3%) both had more than a 1,000 cases, with the remaining 3% of cases spread across 23 other countries (from two vendors and two large multi-national corporations). Within the United States, all five regions of the country were represented and profiled. Main findings: Brief counseling from EAPs was associated with statistically significant improvements on all five WOS outcomes. Large size statistical effects were found for improvement on a composite measure of all five outcomes and for the specific outcomes of work presenteeism and life satisfaction. A medium size statistical effect was found for reducing work absenteeism. Small size statistical effects were found for the more organizationally-influenced WOS outcomes of work engagement and workplace distress. Work presenteeism is the outcome that most defines the employee who uses an EAP, both in terms of the initial impact (work deficit) when distressed before use and also the improvement after counseling. When absenteeism and presenteeism were converted into hours of lost work productivity, the average employee case had 63 hours of unproductive time when in distress before EAP use. Yet, at the follow- up after counseling, this was reduced by 43% to 36 hours. Other research showed the typical worker is unproductive for 27 hours per month. Thus, the EAP user had more than double the amount of lost productive time when first seeking assistance compared to the average employee. However, after counseling had ended, 75% of this initially very high level of lost productivity at work had been restored. The effectiveness of EAP counseling is robust across almost all of the contexts with data to test. The extent of improvement from before to after counseling on WOS measures was generally consistent across client age and sex, across the clinical factors of the type of issue, the number of clinical sessions used, the total duration of the time period of the treatment period, and the source of referral into the EAP, and across different employer conditions of industry and whether the EAP was provided by an external vendor, internal staff, or a hybrid model.
    • SINI 2019: Moral Distress with Burden of Documentation: A Call to Action

      McBride, Susan, P.h.D., R.N.-B.C., C.P.H.I.M.S., F.A.A.N. (2019-07)
    • Peterson's Nursing Schools Online Survey-UMB 2020

      University of Maryland at Baltimore. School of Nursing (2020)
    • Regulating oral biofilm from cariogenic state to non-cariogenic state via novel combination of bioactive therapeutic composite and gene-knockout

      Chen, Hong; Yang, Yingming; Weir, Michael D.; Dai, Quan; Lei, Lei; Homayounfar, Negar; Oates, Thomas W.; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Ke; Hu, Tao; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-09-01)
      The objectives were to investigate a novel combination of gene-knockout with antimicrobial dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) composite in regulating oral biofilm from a cariogenic state toward a non-cariogenic state. A tri-species biofilm model included cariogenic Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), and non-cariogenic Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis) and Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii). Biofilm colony-forming-units (CFUs), lactic acid and polysaccharide production were measured. TaqMan real-time-polymerase-chain reaction was used to determine the percentage of each species in biofilm. The rnc gene-knockout for S. mutans with DMAHDM composite reduced biofilm CFU by five logs, compared to control (p < 0.05). Using parent S. mutans, an overwhelming S. mutans percentage of 68.99% and 69.00% existed in biofilms on commercial composite and 0% DMAHDM composite, respectively. In sharp contrast, with a combination of S. mutans rnc knockout and DMAHDM composite, the cariogenic S. mutans percentage in biofilm was reduced to only 6.33%. Meanwhile, the non-cariogenic S. sanguinis + S. gordonii percentage was increased to 93.67%. Therefore, combining rnc-knockout with bioactive and therapeutic dental composite achieved the greatest reduction in S. mutans, and the greatest increase in non-cariogenic species, thereby yielding the least lactic acid-production. This novel method is promising to obtain wide applications to regulate biofilms and inhibit dental caries.
    • Expression of AR-V7 (Androgen receptor variant 7) protein in granular cytoplasmic structures is an independent prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients

      König, Paul; Eckstein, Markus; Jung, Rudolf; Abdulrahman, Amer; Guzman, Juan; Weigelt, Katrin; Serrero, Ginette; Hayashi, Jun; Geppert, Carol; Stöhr, Robert; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-09-01)
      Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer, causing morbidity and mortality among men world-wide. The expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and its splice variants is a crucial factor of prostate cancer biology that has not been comprehensively studied in PCa tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the protein expression of the AR and its splice variant, AR-V7, and their subcellular distributions in PCa by immunohistochemistry and to correlate the results to the clinicopathological data and prognosis. Immunohistochemical staining for AR and AR-V7 was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) with specimens from 410 PCa patients using an immunoreactive score (IRS) or only the percentage of AR-V7 staining in cytoplasmic granules. Nuclear or cytoplasmic AR staining was not associated with prognosis. AR-V7 staining was only occasionally observed in the nucleus. However, AR-V7 staining in the cytoplasm or in cytoplasmic granules was associated with relapse-free survival (RFS). AR-V7 staining of the cytoplasm was associated with a shorter RFS, whereas AR-V7 staining of cytoplasmic granules was associated with a longer RFS. In a multivariate Cox’s regression analysis, only negative (<5%) AR-V7 staining of cytoplasmic granules remained an independent prognostic factor for RFS (HR = 5.3; p = 0.006). In a further subgroup analysis by multivariate Cox’s regression analysis, AR-V7 was an independent prognostic factor in the following groups: age ≤ 65 (HR = 9.7; p = 0.029), negative CK20 staining (HR = 7.0; p = 0.008), and positive perineural invasion (HR = 3.7; p = 0.034). Altogether, AR-V7 protein in granular cytoplasmic structures is an independent prognostic factor for RFS in PCa patients.