Now showing items 1-20 of 10104

    • Regulatory B cells in infectious disease (Review)

      Dai, Y.-C.; Zhong, J.; Xu, J.-F. (Spandidos Publications, 2017)
      Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are a subset of B cells, which reportedly exert significant immunomodulatory effects through the production of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-35 and transforming growth factor-?. Over the last decade, studies have indicated that Bregs function in autoimmune and allergic diseases through antigen-specific and non-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms. However, only a limited number of reviews have focused on the role of Bregs during infection, particularly their functions in intracellular infections. The present review discusses the role of Bregs in infectious diseases in animal models and human studies, and provides an overview of the immunoregulatory mechanisms used by Bregs.
    • Conserved signatures indicate HIV-1 transmission is under strong selection and thus is not a "stochastic" process

      Gonzalez, M.; DeVico, A.L.; Spouge, J.L. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2017)
      Recently, Oberle et al. published a paper in Retrovirology evaluating the question of whether selection plays a role in HIV transmission. The Oberle study found no obvious genotypic or phenotypic differences between donors and recipients of epidemiologically linked pairs from the Swiss cohort. Thus, Oberle et al. characterized HIV-1 B transmission as largely "stochastic", an imprecise and potentially misleading term. Here, we re-analyzed their data and placed them in the context of transmission data for over 20 other human and animal trials. The present study finds that the transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses from the Swiss cohort show the same non-random genetic signatures conserved in 118 HIV-1, 40 SHIV, and 12 SIV T/F viruses previously published by two independent groups. We provide alternative interpretations of the Swiss cohort data and conclude that the sequences of their donor viruses lacked variability at the specific sites where other studies were able to demonstrate genotypic selection. Oberle et al. observed no phenotypic selection in vitro, so the problem of determining the in vivo phenotypic mechanisms that cause genotypic selection in HIV remains open. Copyright 2017 The Author(s).
    • Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplement Use among Adults with Fibromyalgia: United States, 2007-2012

      Feinberg, T.; Lilly, C.; Innes, K. (Hindawi Limited, 2017)
      Background. Fibromyalgia (FMS) is a pain condition affecting 2-6% of US adults; effective treatment remains limited. Determinants of nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement (NVNM) use among adults with FMS are not well-studied. We investigated the relation of NVNM use to FMS, and trends, in two nationally representative samples of US adults ?18 years. Methods. Data were drawn from 2007 and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys (N's = 20127 and 30672, resp.). Logistic regression was used to examine associations of FMS to NVNM use (past 12 months) and evaluate potential modifying influences of gender and comorbidities. Multivariate models adjusted for sampling design, demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors. Results. FMS was significantly higher in 2012 than in 2007 (1.7% versus 1.3%), whereas NVNM use decreased (57% versus 41%; p<0.0001). Adults reporting diagnosis were more likely to use NVNMs within 12 months, 30 days, or ever relative to adults without; positive associations remained significant after controlling for demographics, lifestyle characteristics, medical history, and other confounders (ranges: 2007 and 2012 AORs = 2.3-2.7; 1.5-1.6, resp.; p's < 0.0001). Conclusion. In this cross-sectional study of two national samples, NVNM use was strongly and positively associated with FMS, highlighting the need for further study. Copyright 2017 Termeh Feinberg et al.
    • Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with pulmonary pathogens

      Gopal, R.; Rapaka, R.R.; Kolls, J.K. (European Respiratory Society, 2017)
      Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response to a variety of pathogens in response to antiretroviral therapy-mediated recovery of the immune system in HIV-infected patients. Although IRIS can occur in many organs, pulmonary IRIS, associated with opportunistic infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii, is particularly associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathology of IRIS is associated with a variety of innate and adaptive immune factors, including CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, ?? T-cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, the complement system and surfactant proteins, Toll-like receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Although there are numerous reports about the immune factors involved in IRIS, the mechanisms involved in the development of pulmonary IRIS are poorly understood. Here, we propose that studies using gene-deficient murine and nonhuman primate models will help to identify the specific molecular targets associated with the development of IRIS. An improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the pathology of pulmonary IRIS will help to identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in this syndrome.
    • Psychoactive drugs in plastic surgery

      Davison, S.P.; Baglien, B.D.; Hayes, K.D. (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2017)
      Background: Psychoactive drug use is on the rise in the United States, with plastic surgery patients a potentially susceptible group. This study aimed to determine the incidence of cosmetic and reconstructive patients in our practice taking psychoactive drugs and to compare those values with the national average. Furthermore, we discuss the patient safety concerns when patients withhold their medical history information over the course of their treatment. Methods: Urban private plastic practice patients who underwent surgery in a closed practice from 2009 to 2016 were divided into cosmetic and reconstructive cohorts. Review for drug use was medical scripts, history, and Surescripts drug reporting. Extracted information includes age, race, procedure, psychoactive medications, and whether or not they stated a mental health diagnosis on their medical history forms. Only patients with complete records were included. Results: A total of 830 patients were included in statistical analysis. Due to minimal cohort number, 70 men were excluded, as there were no comparative national data. Our analysis found that 33.6% cosmetic patients and 46.3% reconstructive patients used at least one psychoactive drug. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference between psychoactive drug use at our practice compared with the general population and a significantly larger percentage of reconstructive patients taking drugs compared with the cosmetic cohort. Copyright Copyright 2017 The Authors.
    • Time to go back to the original name

      Gallo, R.C.; Willems, L.; Tagaya, Y. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2017)
    • Baclofen-Related Neurotoxicity: Implication in a Fatality Associated With Hepatorenal Syndrome

      Golightly, L.K.; Grecheck, L.E.; Kim, I.I. (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017)
    • What additional treatment is indicated for oral cavity cancer with isolated perineural invasion?

      Hatten, K.M.; Gupta, N.; Strome, S.E. (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2017)
    • Ketamine Mechanism of Action: Separating the Wheat from the Chaff

      Gould, T.D.; Zanos, P.; Zarate, C.A. (Nature Publishing Group, 2017)
    • Acute Elevated Glucose Promotes Abnormal Action Potential-Induced Ca2+ Transients in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Fibers

      Hernández-Ochoa, E.O.; Banks, Q.; Schneider, M.F. (Hindawi Limited, 2017)
      A common comorbidity of diabetes is skeletal muscle dysfunction, which leads to compromised physical function. Previous studies of diabetes in skeletal muscle have shown alterations in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) - the sequential link between action potentials (AP), intracellular Ca2+ release, and the contractile machinery. Yet, little is known about the impact of acute elevated glucose on the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca2+ transients and ionic underlying mechanisms that lead to muscle dysfunction. Here, we used high-speed confocal Ca2+ imaging to investigate the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca2+ transients, an intermediate step of ECC, using an acute in cellulo model of uncontrolled hyperglycemia (25 mM, 48 h.). Control and elevated glucose-exposed muscle fibers cultured for five days displayed four distinct patterns of AP-induced Ca2+ transients (phasic, biphasic, phasic-delayed, and phasic-slow decay); most control muscle fibers show phasic AP-induced Ca2+ transients, while most fibers exposed to elevated D-glucose displayed biphasic Ca2+ transients upon single field stimulation. We hypothesize that these changes in the temporal profile of the AP-induced Ca2+ transients are due to changes in the intrinsic excitable properties of the muscle fibers. We propose that these changes accompany early stages of diabetic myopathy. Copyright 2017 Erick O. Hernández-Ochoa et al.
    • Quantitative PET Myocardial Blood Flow: "Trust, But Verify"

      Dilsizian, V.; Chandrashekhar, Y.; Narula, J. (Elsevier Inc., 2017)
    • Introduction to proceedings of healthy futures: engaging the oral health community in childhood obesity prevention national conference

      Tinanoff, N.; Holt, K. (Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2017)
      Objectives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has worked to ensure that all children have healthy weights. To promote this goal, the RWJF has supported the Healthy Futures: Engaging the Oral Health Community in Childhood Obesity Prevention National Conference, held on November 3-4, 2016, and the proceeding of this conference. The goals of the conference were to increase understanding of the science focusing on oral health and childhood obesity, increase understanding of how to prevent childhood obesity, and provide opportunities to network and plan activities to prevent childhood obesity. Methods: The papers prepared for the conference identified through systematic reviews or scoping reviews the state of the science related to preventing childhood obesity and reducing children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and strategies that oral health professionals and organizations can employ prevent childhood obesity. Results: Causes of childhood obesity are multifactorial and include genetic components, environmental and lifestyle variables, and nutritional factors. Dental caries also is caused by a combination of factors, including cariogenic diet, inadequate fluoride exposure, a susceptible host, and the presence of caries-causing bacteria in the oral cavity. One key risk factors for both obesity and caries is excessive sugar consumption. Conclusions: To reduce the risk of obesity and dental caries in children, health professionals and parents need to be aware of the sugar content of processed foods and beverages as well as of current daily sugar-consumption recommendations. Additionally, oral health professionals must become more engaged in identifying children who are at risk for obesity and dental caries; and provide education, screening and referral to reduce these risks.
    • Choline and working memory training improve cognitive deficits caused by prenatal exposure to ethanol

      Waddell, J.; Mooney, S.M. (MDPI AG, 2017)
      Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many behaviors in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and also improves working memory function in normal rats. We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with choline in the postnatal period will improve working memory during adolescence in normal and ethanol-exposed animals, and that working memory engagement during adolescence will transfer to other cognitive domains and have lasting effects on executive function in adulthood. Male and female offspring of rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (ET; 3% v/v) or control dams given a non-ethanol liquid diet (CT) were injected with choline (Cho; 100 mg/kg) or saline (Sal) once per day from postnatal day (P) 16-P30. Animals were trained/tested on a working memory test in adolescence and then underwent attentional set shifting and reversal learning in young adulthood. In adolescence, ET rats required more training to reach criterion than CT-Sal. Choline improved working memory performance for both CT and ET animals. In young adulthood, ET animals also performed poorly on the set shifting and reversal tasks. Deficits were more robust in ET male rats than female ET rats, but Cho improved performance in both sexes. ET male rats given a combination of Cho and working memory training in adolescence required significantly fewer trials to achieve criterion than any other ET group, suggesting that early interventions can cause a persistent improvement. Copyright 2017 by the authors.
    • Methamphetamine and Ovarian Steroid Responsive Cells in the Posteriodorsal Medial Amygdala are Required for Methamphetamine-enhanced Proceptive Behaviors

      Williams, K.M.; Mong, J.A. (Nature Publishing Group, 2017)
      Methamphetamine (Meth) is a psychomotor stimulant strongly associated with increases in sexual drive and impulse in both men and women. These changes in sexual motivation have a greater impact on women due to their likelihood of facing the greater burden of unplanned pregnancies, as well as increased risk for psychiatric co-morbidities such as depression. We have previously established a rodent model of Meth-induced increases in sexual motivation. Using this model, we have identified the posteriodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) via excitotoxic lesion studies as a necessary nucleus in Meth-facilitated female sexual motivation. While lesion studies give us insight into key nuclei that may be targets of Meth action, such an approach does not give insight into the identity of the specific MePD neurons or neural circuitry involved in Meth-induced increases in proceptive behaviors. Using the DAUN02 inactivation method, a recently established technique for removing behaviorally relevant cell populations, we present evidence that the ovarian steroid/Meth responsive cells in the MePD are necessary for Meth-induced facilitation of proceptive behaviors. These findings form the basis for future work that will allow for the classification of neuronal subtypes involved in the MePD's modulation of proceptive behavior as well as a stronger understanding of the neurocircuitry of female sexual motivation. Copyright Author(s) 2017.
    • The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology

      Smith, S.B.; Ravel, J. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2017)
      The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture-independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive-aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic-acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine-tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. (Figure presented.). Copyright 2016 The Authors.
    • The exceptional oncogenicity of HTLV-1

      Tagaya, Y.; Gallo, R.C. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2017)
      Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) is the first pathogenic human retrovirus identified in 1979 by the Gallo group. HTLV-1 causes fatal T-cell leukemia (adult T cell leukemia) and a progressive myelopahy (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP) and other disorders. Since the discovery of HTLV-1, several other microorganisms are demonstrated to cause cancer in humans. In this article, we investigated the oncogenic capacity of HTLV-1, in comparison with those of other oncoviruses and one oncobacterium (Helicobacter pylori, H. Pylori) based on published literature. We conclude here that HTLV-1 is one of the most and may be the most carcinogenic among them and arguably one of the most potent of the known human carcinogens. This fact has not been noted before and is particularly important to justify why we need to study HTLV-1 as an important model of human viral oncogenesis. Copyright 2017 Tagaya and Gallo.
    • The LDL Receptor-Related Protein 1: At the Crossroads of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Insulin Signaling

      Au, D.T.; Strickland, D.K.; Muratoglu, S.C. (Hindawi Limited, 2017)
      The metabolic syndrome is an escalating worldwide public health concern. Defined by a combination of physiological, metabolic, and biochemical factors, the metabolic syndrome is used as a clinical guideline to identify individuals with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have been known for decades, the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases and their interrelationship remain unclear. The LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling receptor that is widely expressed in several tissues. As a member of the LDL receptor family, LRP1 is involved in the clearance of chylomicron remnants from the circulation and has been demonstrated to be atheroprotective. Recently, studies have shown that LRP1 is involved in insulin receptor trafficking and regulation and glucose metabolism. This review summarizes the role of tissue-specific LRP1 in insulin signaling and its potential role as a link between lipoprotein and glucose metabolism in diabetes. Copyright 2017 Dianaly T. Au et al.
    • Negative Symptom Therapeutics

      Carpenter, W.T.; Jr.; Buchanan, R.W. (Oxford University Press, 2017)
    • Against medical advice discharges

      Alfandre, D.; Brenner, J.; Onukwugha, E. (Society of hospital medicine, 2017)
      The “Things We Do for No Reason” (TWDFNR) series reviews practices which have become common parts of hospital care but which may provide little value to our patients. Practices reviewed in the TWDFNR series do not represent “black and white” conclusions or clinical practice standards, but are meant as a starting place for research and active discussions among hospitalists and patients. We invite you to be part of that discussion.