Now showing items 1-20 of 17530

    • Making Care for Older People the Choice of Nurses Today, Tomorrow, and Forever.

      Fick, Donna M; Kagan, Sarah H; Resnick, Barbara; Young, Heather M (Slack Inc., 2022-05-16)
    • HIV-associated vaginal microbiome and inflammation predict spontaneous preterm birth in Zambia.

      Price, Joan T; Vwalika, Bellington; France, Michael; Ravel, Jacques; Ma, Bing; Mwape, Humphrey; Rittenhouse, Katelyn J; De Paris, Kristina; Hobbs, Marcia; Nelson, Julie A; et al. (Springer Nature, 2022-05-20)
      A Lactobacillus-deficient, anaerobe-rich vaginal microbiome has been associated with local inflammation and spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB), but few studies have assessed this association in the setting of HIV. We performed metagenomic sequencing and inflammatory marker assays on vaginal swabs collected in pregnancy. We grouped samples into 7 metagenomic clusters (mgClust) using the non-redundant VIRGO catalogue, and derived inflammatory scores by factor analysis. Of 221 participants, median Shannon diversity index (SDI) was highest in HIV+ with detectable viral load (1.31, IQR: 0.85–1.66; p < 0.001) and HIV+ with undetectable virus (1.17, IQR: 0.51–1.66; p = 0.01) compared to HIV− (0.74, IQR: 0.35–1.26). Inflammatory scores positively correlated with SDI (+ 0.66, 95%CI 0.28, 1.03; p = 0.001), highest among anaerobe-rich mgClust2–mgClust6. HIV was associated with predominance of anaerobe-rich mgClust5 (17% vs. 6%; p = 0.02) and mgClust6 (27% vs. 11%; p = 0.002). Relative abundance of a novel Gardnerella metagenomic subspecies > 50% predicted sPTB (RR 2.6; 95%CI: 1.1, 6.4) and was higher in HIV+ (23% vs. 10%; p = 0.001). A novel Gardnerella metagenomic subspecies more abundant in women with HIV predicted sPTB. The risk of sPTB among women with HIV may be mediated by the vaginal microbiome and inflammation, suggesting potential targets for prevention.
    • Health Equity in Pediatric Drug Development: Translating Aspiration into Operation.

      Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Conway, Magda; Russo, Carolyn; Diniz, Nilza; Jafta, Lungile P; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Bernays, Sarah; Santana, Victor M; Epps, Carla; Turner, Mark A (Springer Nature, 2022-05-20)
      The concept of health equity-the attainment of the highest possible level of health for all members of society-requires equitable access to all aspects of healthcare, including pediatric drug development. However, many communities are under-represented in pediatric drug development programs. Barriers to participation include geographic, economic, racial/ethnic bias, legal, cultural, linguistic, and other factors. While there is no "one size fits all" approach to addressing these barriers, community engagement and collaboration is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control, the World Health Organization, and other global health organizations as a cornerstone for building a more equitable healthcare system. In this article, we will present case studies of stakeholder and community engagement in clinical research for rare diseases and other areas of healthcare, as examples of strategies and practices for actively involving under-represented communities and fostering their participation in pediatric drug development programs. These studies may serve as templates for facilitating equity in pediatric drug development from aspiration into operation.
    • Cryptic Genes for Interbacterial Antagonism Distinguish Species Infecting Blacklegged Ticks From Other Pathogens.

      Verhoeve, Victoria I; Fauntleroy, Tyesha D; Risteen, Riley G; Driscoll, Timothy P; Gillespie, Joseph J (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-05-03)
      The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) encompasses numerous obligate intracellular species with predominantly ciliate and arthropod hosts. Notable species are pathogens transmitted to mammals by blood-feeding arthropods. Mammalian pathogenicity evolved from basal, non-pathogenic host-associations; however, some non-pathogens are closely related to pathogens. One such species, Rickettsia buchneri, is prevalent in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. While I. scapularis transmits several pathogens to humans, it does not transmit Rickettsia pathogens. We hypothesize that R. buchneri established a mutualism with I. scapularis, blocking tick superinfection with Rickettsia pathogens.
    • Minimal Effects of Cariprazine on Prolactin Levels in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia.

      Culpepper, Larry; Vieta, Eduard; Kelly, Deanna L; Patel, Mehul D; Szatmári, Balázs; Hankinson, Arlene; Earley, Willie R (Dove Press, 2022-05-12)
      Background: Many medications used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are linked to hyperprolactinemia. The effects of cariprazine, a dopamine D3/D2 receptor partial agonist, on prolactin levels in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder were evaluated. Methods: Effects on prolactin were evaluated using pooled data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in patients with schizophrenia (4 studies; 6-week duration; cariprazine 1.5-3 mg/d, 4.5-6 mg/d, and 9-12 mg/d), bipolar mania (3 studies; 3-week duration; cariprazine 3-6 and 9-12 mg/d), and bipolar depression (3 studies; 6- to 8-week duration; cariprazine 1.5 and 3 mg/d). Long-term effects were analyzed using open-label studies in patients with schizophrenia (2 studies; 48-week duration) and patients with bipolar mania (1 study; 16-week duration). Change in prolactin levels (ng/mL) from baseline to study endpoint was evaluated in subsets of sex and prior medication use. Results: In patients with schizophrenia (male, n = 1377; female, n = 558), median prolactin changes were -1.2 for males and -7.4 for females on placebo, and ranged from -4.2 to -3.6 for males and -12.4 to +0.2 for females in the cariprazine-treatment groups. In patients with bipolar mania (male, n = 570; female, n = 395), median prolactin changes were -0.2 for males and -1.1 for females on placebo and ranged from -2.1 to -3.0 for males and 0 to +1.8 for females in the cariprazine-treatment groups. Median decreases were also seen in the long-term studies of schizophrenia (range, -14.6 to -2.0) and bipolar mania (range, -0.8 to +1.9). In patients with bipolar depression (male, n = 485; female, n = 780), median prolactin changes were +0.3 for males and +0.7 for females on placebo and ranged from +0.4 to +0.5 for males and +3.0 to +3.1 for females in the cariprazine-treatment groups. Conclusion: Treatment with cariprazine for schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder was associated with minimal effects on prolactin levels.
    • Editorial: The Double Facets of Social Behavior in Drug Addiction.

      El Rawas, Rana; Venniro, Marco (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-05-05)
    • Radiation Induced Lymphopenia Is Associated With the Effective Dose to the Circulating Immune Cells in Breast Cancer.

      Chen, Fang; Jin, Jian-Yue; Hui, Timothy S K; Jing, Haiman; Zhang, Hong; Nong, Yaqing; Han, Ying; Wang, Weili; Ma, Lingyu; Yi, Fan; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-04-28)
      A total of 735 patients were eligible. The mean post/preRT PLC ratio was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.64-0.68) and mean EDIC of breast cancer was 1.70Gy (95% CI: 1.64-1.75). Both post/preRT PLC ratio and postRT PLC were significantly correlated with EDIC (P<0.001), with R2 of 0.246. For patients with normal preRT PLC, the post/preRT PLC ratio was better associated with EDIC, and postRT PLC was expressed as PLC preRT × (0.89 - 0.16 × EDIC). For patients with preRT lymphopenia, postRT PLC was better associated with EDIC and it was 1.1 - 0.17 × EDIC. Using binned EDIC as the dose variable, the bootstrap validated NTCPs fit the data nicely with R2 of 0.93, 0.96, and 0.94 for grade-1, grade-2, and grade-3 RIL, respectively. The corresponding EDIC to induce 50% of grade-1, grade-2 and grade-3 RIL was 1.2, 2.1 and 3.7 Gy, respectively.
    • Virtual Face to Face with Dr. Bruce Jarrell: The New Lexington Market

      Jarrell, Bruce E.; Likowski, Alex; Hughes, James L., M.B.A.; DiPrinzio, Peter; Harrington, Pickett Slater (2020-10)
    • The Relationship of Falls With Achieved 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels From Vitamin D Supplementation: The STURDY Trial.

      Michos, Erin D; Kalyani, Rita R; Blackford, Amanda L; Sternberg, Alice L; Mitchell, Christine M; Juraschek, Stephen P; Schrack, Jennifer A; Wanigatunga, Amal A; Roth, David L; Christenson, Robert H; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2022-04-16)
      At baseline, mean (SD) age was 77.1 (5.4) years and 25(OH)D was 22.1 (5.1) ng/mL; 43.0% were women and 21.5% non-White. A total of 395 participants experienced ≥ 1 fall; 294 experienced ≥ 1 consequential fall. There was no association between absolute achieved 25(OH)D and incident first fall (30-39 vs < 30 ng/mL hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.74-1.16; ≥40 vs < 30 ng/mL HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.82-1.46; adjusted overall P = 0.67), nor absolute or relative change in 25(OH)D. For incident consequential first fall, the HR (95% CI) comparing absolute 25(OH)D ≥ 40 vs < 30 ng/mL was 1.38 (0.99-1.90).
    • The Facts Don’t Lie: Statistical Truths about the Business Value of EAPs

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2022-04)
      This article presents succinct and data-driven facts that answer critical questions about the business value of EAPs, and it offers an ROI case study with $2,200 USD savings per each counseling case from avoided further workplace productivity losses in work presenteeism and absenteeism.
    • Virtual Face to Face with Dr. Bruce Jarrell: The Killing of Breonna Taylor

      Jarrell, Bruce E.; Lee, Laura; Gray, David C.; Pinard, Michael; Sinha, Maneka; Likowski, Alex (2020-10)
    • Dual-Energy CT imaging of chronic subdural hematoma and quantitative analysis of membrane permeability

      Khalid, Mazhar; Boldanapally, Uttam; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Fletcher, Thorsten; Aarabi, Bizhan (2022)
    • Update on EAP Market and Research

      Attridge, Mark (Workplace Collaborative, 2022-04-29)
      Overview of current trends in the business market for employee assistance programs in the United States. Includes review of several applied research projects on EAP outcomes.
    • Key Factors in Business Continuity: Mental Health Impacts

      Attridge, Mark (Make It Safe, 2020-10-29)
      Part 1: Current state of mental distress for Canadian Workers in COVID-19 Pandemic Context, with highlights of national survey trend data and 10 recommendations for businesses. Part 2: Research-based best practices for more effective use of Employee and Family Assistance Programs and technology-based tools for mental health.