Cancers attributable to alcohol consumption in Nigeria: 2012-2014
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
PublisherFrontiers Media S.A.
MetadataShow full item record
Abstractintroduction: Alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for many cancers but less attention has been paid to the fraction of those cancers that are attributable to alcohol consumption. In this study, we evaluated the incidence and population attributable fraction (PAF) of cancers associated with alcohol consumption in Nigeria. Methods: We obtained data on incidence of cancers from two population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in Nigeria and identified cancer sites for which there is strong evidence of an association with alcohol consumption based on the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph 100E. We computed the PAF for each cancer site by age and sex, using prevalence and relative risk estimates from previous studies. results: Between 2012 and 2014 study period, the PBCRs reported 4,336 cancer cases of which 1,627 occurred in males, and 2,709 occurred in females. Of these, a total of 1,808 cancer cases, 339 in males and 1,469 in females, were associated with alcohol intake. The age standardized incidence rate (ASR) of alcohol associated cancers was 77.3 per 100,000. Only 4.3% (186/4,336) of all cancer cases or 10.3% (186/1,808) of alcohol associated cancers were attributable to alcohol consumption. Some 42.5% (79/186) of these cancers occurred in males while 57.5% (107/186) occurred in females. The ASR of cancers attributable to alcohol in this population was 7.2 per 100,000. The commonest cancers attributable to alcohol consumption were cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx in men and cancer of the breast in women. conclusion: Our study shows that 4.3% of incident cancers in Nigeria can be prevented by avoiding alcohol consumption. While the incidence of cancers associated with alcohol intake is high, the proportion attributable to alcohol consumption is much lower suggesting that the number of cancers that may be prevented by eliminating alcohol intake in this population is relatively low. Copyright 2017 Odutola, Jedy-Agba, Dareng, Adebamowo, Oga, Igbinoba, Otu, Ezeome, Hassan and Adebamowo.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85028356283&doi=10.3389%2ffonc.2017.00183&partnerID=40&md5=9c0d810a850b19fd462a7c89d6f405be; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/9956
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Comparative proteogenomic analysis of right-sided colon cancer, left-sided colon cancer and rectal cancer reveals distinct mutational profilesImperial, R.; Ahmed, Z.; Toor, O.M. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018)Right-sided colon cancer (RCC) has worse prognosis compared to left-sided colon cancer (LCC) and rectal cancer. The reason for this difference in outcomes is not well understood. We performed comparative somatic and proteomic analyses of RCC, LCC and rectal cancers to understand the unique molecular features of each tumor sub-types. Utilizing a novel in silico clonal evolution algorithm, we identified common tumor-initiating events involving APC, KRAS and TP53 genes in RCC, LCC and rectal cancers. However, the individual role-played by each event, their order in tumor development and selection of downstream somatic alterations were distinct in all three anatomical locations. Some similarities were noted between LCC and rectal cancer. Hotspot mutation analysis identified a nonsense mutation, APC R1450* specific to RCC. In addition, we discovered new significantly mutated genes at each tumor location, Further in silico proteomic analysis, developed by our group, found distinct central or hub proteins with unique interactomes among each location. Our study revealed significant differences between RCC, LCC and rectal cancers not only at somatic but also at proteomic level that may have therapeutic relevance in these highly complex and heterogeneous tumors. Copyright 2018 The Author(s).
The DNA synthesome: A model for studying breast cancer cell DNA replication and the mechanisms of action of anti-breast cancer agentsColl, Jennifer Marie; Malkas, Linda H. (1998)We have isolated a multiprotein complex for DNA synthesis, designated the DNA synthesome, from human breast cancer (MDA MB-468) cells, biopsied human breast tumor tissue and xenografts from nude mice injected with the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The breast cell DNA synthesome was shown to fully support the in vitro replication of simian virus 40 (SV40) origin-containing DNA in the presence of the viral large T-antigen. Moreover, our results obtained from a forward mutagenesis assay indicate that the DNA synthesome isolated from malignant breast cells possesses a lower fidelity for DNA replication in vitro than the complex from a nonmalignant breast cell line. The proteins and enzymes found to copurify with the breast cell DNA synthesome include: DNA polymerases alpha, delta, and epsilon, DNA primase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), replication factor C (RF-C), replication protein A (RP-A), DNA ligase, DNA topoisomerases I and II and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. To begin to determine the organization of these DNA synthetic proteins within the breast cell DNA synthesome, we performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments with antibodies directed against DNA polymerases alpha, delta and PCNA. We found that DNA polymerases alpha, delta, DNA primase, RF-C and PCNA tightly associate with each other in the complex, whereas DNA polymerase epsilon, PARP and several other components interact with the synthesome via an interaction with only PCNA or DNA polymerase alpha. Furthermore, we employed the breast cell DNA synthesome as a model to study the mechanisms of action of two anti-breast cancer agents that target the DNA synthetic process, irinotecan (CPT-11/SN-38) and etoposide (VP-16). We obtained novel data suggesting that both SN-38 and VP-16 stabilized cleavable complexes represent blocks to replication fork progression, as each agent caused an accumulation of short DNA products during synthesome mediated in vitro replication. Overall, our results indicate that breast cancer cells utilize an asymmetric multiprotein complex to mediate DNA synthesis and that utilization of the DNA synthesome as a drug model may provide important new insights into the mechanisms of action of SN-38 and VP-16.