Periodontal manifestations of systemic diseases and developmental and acquired conditions: Consensus report of workgroup 3 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
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AbstractBackground: A variety of systemic diseases and conditions can affect the course of periodontitis or have a negative impact on the periodontal attachment apparatus. Gingival recessions are highly prevalent and often associated with hypersensitivity, the development of caries and non-carious cervical lesions on the exposed root surface and impaired esthetics. Occlusal forces can result in injury of teeth and periodontal attachment apparatus. Several developmental or acquired conditions associated with teeth or prostheses may predispose to diseases of the periodontium. The aim of this working group was to review and update the 1999 classification with regard to these diseases and conditions, and to develop case definitions and diagnostic considerations. Methods: Discussions were informed by four reviews on 1) periodontal manifestions of systemic diseases and conditions; 2) mucogingival conditions around natural teeth; 3) traumatic occlusal forces and occlusal trauma; and 4) dental prostheses and tooth related factors. This consensus report is based on the results of these reviews and on expert opinion of the participants. Results: Key findings included the following: 1) there are mainly rare systemic conditions (such as Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome, leucocyte adhesion deficiency, and others) with a major effect on the course of periodontitis and more common conditions (such as diabetes mellitus) with variable effects, as well as conditions affecting the periodontal apparatus independently of dental plaque biofilm-induced inflammation (such as neoplastic diseases); 2) diabetes-associated periodontitis should not be regarded as a distinct diagnosis, but diabetes should be recognized as an important modifying factor and included in a clinical diagnosis of periodontitis as a descriptor; 3) likewise, tobacco smoking - now considered a dependence to nicotine and a chronic relapsing medical disorder with major adverse effects on the periodontal supporting tissues - is an important modifier to be included in a clinical diagnosis of periodontitis as a descriptor; 4) the importance of the gingival phenotype, encompassing gingival thickness and width in the context of mucogingival conditions, is recognized and a novel classification for gingival recessions is introduced; 5) there is no evidence that traumatic occlusal forces lead to periodontal attachment loss, non-carious cervical lesions, or gingival recessions; 6) traumatic occlusal forces lead to adaptive mobility in teeth with normal support, whereas they lead to progressive mobility in teeth with reduced support, usually requiring splinting; 7) the term biologic width is replaced by supracrestal tissue attachment consisting of junctional epithelium and supracrestal connective tissue; 8) infringement of restorative margins within the supracrestal connective tissue attachment is associated with inflammation and/or loss of periodontal supporting tissue. However, it is not evident whether the negative effects on the periodontium are caused by dental plaque biofilm, trauma, toxicity of dental materials or a combination of these factors; 9) tooth anatomical factors are related to dental plaque biofilm-induced gingival inflammation and loss of periodontal supporting tissues. Conclusion: An updated classification of the periodontal manifestations and conditions affecting the course of periodontitis and the periodontal attachment apparatus, as well as of developmental and acquired conditions, is introduced. Case definitions and diagnostic considerations are also presented. Copyright 2018 American Academy of Periodontology and European Federation of Periodontology
plastic periodontal surgery
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85048836248&doi=10.1111%2fjcpe.12951&partnerID=40&md5=db6d9385c397c0d81065508cfe887cd5; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/9754
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Periodontal Disease and Incident CKD in US Hispanics/Latinos: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of LatinosToth-Manikowski, Stephanie M.; Ricardo, Ana C.; Salazar, Christian R.; Chen, Jinsong; Khambaty, Tasneem; Liu, Jannel; Singer, Richard H.; Youngblood, Marston E.; Cai, Jianwen; Kaste, Linda M.; et al. (Elsevier Ltd., 2021-07-3)Rationale & Objective: Recent studies suggest that periodontal disease may be associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, studies have focused on older populations, and US Hispanics/Latinos were not well represented. Study Design: Observational cohort. Setting & Participants: We analyzed data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos who completed a baseline visit with a periodontal examination and a follow-up visit, and did not have CKD at baseline. Predictors: Predictors included ≥30% of sites with clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm, ≥30% of sites with probing depth ≥4 mm, percentage of sites with bleeding on probing, and absence of functional dentition (<21 permanent teeth present). Outcomes: Outcomes were incident low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and decline in eGFR ≥1 mL/min/year); incident albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio [ACR] ≥30 mg/g); and change in eGFR and ACR. Analytic Approach: Poisson and linear regression. Results: For the sample (n = 7.732), baseline mean age was 41.5 years, 45.2% were male, 11.7% had ≥30% of sites with clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm, 5.1% had ≥30% of sites with probing depth ≥4 mm, 30.7% had ≥50% of sites with bleeding on probing, and 16.2% had absent functional dentition. During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 149 patients developed low eGFR and 415 patients developed albuminuria. On multivariable analysis, presence versus absence of ≥30% of sites with probing depth ≥4 mm and absence of functional dentition were each associated with increased risk for incident low eGFR (incident density ratio, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.14-4.65 and 1.65, 95% CI, 1.01-2.70, respectively). None of the other predictors were associated with outcomes. Limitations: Only a single kidney function follow-up measure. Conclusions: In this cohort of US Hispanics/Latinos, we found that select measures of periodontal disease were associated with incident low eGFR. Future work is needed to assess whether the treatment of periodontal disease may prevent CKD.
Psychological Stress: A Predisposing and Exacerbating Factor in PeriodontitisSpector, Anna M.; Postolache, Teodor T.; Akram, Faisal; Scott, Alison J.; Wadhawan, Abhishek; Reynolds, Mark A. (Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2020-08-20)Purpose of Review: This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between psychological stress, the immune system, and periodontitis, including the dynamic role of host stress responses in altering immune function, altering the oral microbiome and biofilm formation, and promoting local and systemic disease progression. Recent Findings: Within the context of periodontal health and disease, stress leads to an impairment of effective antimicrobial defense, shifts in oral microbiome profiles toward more pathogenic gene expression and taxa composition, increased translocation, and biofilm formation. The link between stress and periodontitis is multiform and includes hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and catecholamine activation, production of immune mediators of inflammation and, clinically, syndromes of depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and sleep-wake disorders. Summary: Psychological stress appears to be an important modifiable risk factor for the development and progression of periodontitis and other periodontal diseases. © 2020, The Author(s).
Inhibition of CCL2 by bindarit alleviates diabetes-associated periodontitis by suppressing inflammatory monocyte infiltration and altering macrophage propertiesShen, Zongshan; Kuang, Shuhong; Zhang, Min; Huang, Xin; Chen, Jiayao; Guan, Meiliang; Qin, Wei; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Lin, Zhengmei (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-16)Diabetes-associated periodontitis (DP) aggravates diabetic complications and increases mortality from diabetes. DP is caused by diabetes-enhanced host immune-inflammatory responses to bacterial insult. In this study, we found that persistently elevated CCL2 levels in combination with proinflammatory monocyte infiltration of periodontal tissues were closely related to DP. Moreover, inhibition of CCL2 by oral administration of bindarit reduced alveolar bone loss and increased periodontal epithelial thickness by suppressing periodontal inflammation. Furthermore, bindarit suppressed the infiltration of proinflammatory monocytes and altered the inflammatory properties of macrophages in the diabetic periodontium. This finding provides a basis for the development of an effective therapeutic approach for treating DP.