Clinical, environmental, and behavioral characteristics associated with Cryptosporidium infection among children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2008-2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)
JournalPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
PublisherPublic Library of Science
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBackground Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in young children in Africa. We examined factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection in MSD cases enrolled at the rural western Kenya Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) site from 2008-2012. Methodology/Principal findings At health facility enrollment, stool samples were tested for enteric pathogens and data on clinical, environmental, and behavioral characteristics collected. Each child’s health status was recorded at 60-day follow-up. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 1,778 children with MSD enrolled as cases in the GEMS-Kenya case-control study, 11% had Cryptosporidium detected in stool by enzyme immunoassay; in a genotyped subset, 81% were C. hominis. Among MSD cases, being an infant, having mucus in stool, and having prolonged/persistent duration diarrhea were associated with being Cryptosporidium-positive. Both boiling drinking water and using rainwater as the main drinking water source were protective factors for being Cryptosporidium-positive. At follow-up, Cryptosporidium-positive cases had increased odds of being stunted (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.06–2.57), underweight (aOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.34–3.22), or wasted (aOR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.21–3.43), and had significantly larger negative changes in height- and weight-for-age z-scores from enrollment. Conclusions/Significance Cryptosporidium contributes significantly to diarrheal illness in young children in western Kenya. Advances in point of care detection, prevention/control approaches, effective water treatment technologies, and clinical management options for children with cryptosporidiosis are needed. Copyright 2018, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85051281686&doi=10.1371%2fjournal.pntd.0006640&partnerID=40&md5=b0c4dad780b42d39a4df7d11c509646d; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/9752
- The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS).
- Authors: Sow SO, Muhsen K, Nasrin D, Blackwelder WC, Wu Y, Farag TH, Panchalingam S, Sur D, Zaidi AK, Faruque AS, Saha D, Adegbola R, Alonso PL, Breiman RF, Bassat Q, Tamboura B, Sanogo D, Onwuchekwa U, Manna B, Ramamurthy T, Kanungo S, Ahmed S, Qureshi S, Quadri F, Hossain A, Das SK, Antonio M, Hossain MJ, Mandomando I, Nhampossa T, Acácio S, Omore R, Oundo JO, Ochieng JB, Mintz ED, O'Reilly CE, Berkeley LY, Livio S, Tennant SM, Sommerfelt H, Nataro JP, Ziv-Baran T, Robins-Browne RM, Mishcherkin V, Zhang J, Liu J, Houpt ER, Kotloff KL, Levine MM
- Issue date: 2016 May
- Epidemiology, Seasonality and Factors Associated with Rotavirus Infection among Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2008-2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS).
- Authors: Omore R, Tate JE, O'Reilly CE, Ayers T, Williamson J, Moke F, Schilling KA, Awuor AO, Jaron P, Ochieng JB, Oundo J, Parashar UD, Parsons MB, Bopp CC, Nasrin D, Farag TH, Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Panchalingam S, Levine MM, Laserson KF, Nuorti JP, Mintz ED, Breiman RF
- Issue date: 2016
- Animal-related factors associated with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children younger than five years in western Kenya: A matched case-control study.
- Authors: Conan A, O'Reilly CE, Ogola E, Ochieng JB, Blackstock AJ, Omore R, Ochieng L, Moke F, Parsons MB, Xiao L, Roellig D, Farag TH, Nataro JP, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Mintz ED, Breiman RF, Cleaveland S, Knobel DL
- Issue date: 2017 Aug
- Cryptosporidium infection in rural Gambian children: Epidemiology and risk factors.
- Authors: Hossain MJ, Saha D, Antonio M, Nasrin D, Blackwelder WC, Ikumapayi UN, Mackenzie GA, Adeyemi M, Jasseh M, Adegbola RA, Roose AW, Kotloff KL, Levine MM
- Issue date: 2019 Jul
- Diarrheal Disease in Rural Mozambique: Burden, Risk Factors and Etiology of Diarrheal Disease among Children Aged 0-59 Months Seeking Care at Health Facilities.
- Authors: Nhampossa T, Mandomando I, Acacio S, Quintó L, Vubil D, Ruiz J, Nhalungo D, Sacoor C, Nhabanga A, Nhacolo A, Aide P, Machevo S, Sigaúque B, Nhama A, Kotloff K, Farag T, Nasrin D, Bassat Q, Macete E, Levine MM, Alonso P
- Issue date: 2015