Therapeutic Evaluation of a Novel Topical Antimicrobial Formulation against Candida-Associated Denture Stomatitis in an Experimental Rat Model
AdvisorJabra-Rizk, Mary Ann
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AbstractCandida-associated denture stomatitis (DS), caused by the fungal species Candida albicans, is the most common manifestation of oral candidiasis and is prevalent in up to 70% of denture wearers. DS tends to be a persistent and recurrent oral condition as a consequence of the ability of C. albicans to adhere to denture material and invade associated palatal tissue. There are currently no effective therapeutic strategies targeting DS, and despite antifungal therapy, infection is often re-established after treatment ceases. Therefore, it has become crucial to identify novel therapeutic approaches. Antimicrobial peptides have attracted significant attention as candidates for drug development due to their potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, lack of toxicity and lack of development of drug resistance. Specifically, histatin-5 (Hst-5), naturally produced and secreted by host salivary glands, has demonstrated potent antifungal activity, including against strains resistant to traditional antifungals. However, our laboratory has previously demonstrated vulnerability for Hst-5 to proteolysis by C. albicans secreted proteolytic enzymes at specific amino acid residues. Therefore, to generate a resistant derivative of Hst-5, we engineered a variant (K11R-K17R) with substitutions in the amino acid residues at the cleavage sites. The new peptide proved to be more stable, and unlike the native Hst-5, resistant to proteolysis by C. albicans proteases. Importantly, for clinical application, we designed a polymer-based bioadhesive hydrogel as a delivery system for the peptide and developed a therapeutic formulation specifically designed for oral topical application. The potency of the new formulation in inhibiting C. albicans adherence and biofilm formation on denture acrylic material was demonstrated in vitro indicating a potential clinical applicability against DS. To that end, using 3D digital design and printing technology, we engineered and fabricated a universal intraoral device that was successfully used in the animals to develop clinical disease mimicking DS as in humans. Using the novel animal model, we established the clinical utility of the formulation for the prevention of biofilm formation on denture device and DS development. Importantly, in addition to DS, the formulation can also be used for treatment of other forms of candidiasis as well as serve in augmenting host natural immune defenses.
Oral and Experimental Pathology
University of Maryland, Baltimore