HIV status disclosure to male partners among rural Nigerian women along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV cascade: A mixed methods study
PublisherBioMed Central Ltd.
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AbstractBackground: HIV status disclosure to male partners is important for optimal outcomes in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Depending on timing of HIV diagnosis or pregnancy status, readiness to disclose and disclosure rates may differ among HIV-positive women. We sought to determine rates, patterns, and experiences of disclosure among Nigerian women along the PMTCT cascade. Methods: HIV-positive women in rural North-Central Nigeria were purposively recruited according to their PMTCT cascade status: pregnant-newly HIV-diagnosed, pregnant-in care, postpartum, and lost-to-follow-up (LTFU). Participants were surveyed to determine rates of disclosure to male partners and others; in-depth interviews evaluated disclosure patterns and experiences. Tests of association were applied to quantitative data. Qualitative data were manually analysed by theme and content using the constant comparative method in a Grounded Theory approach. Results: We interviewed 100 women; 69% were 21-30 years old, and 86% were married. There were 25, 26, 28 and 21 women in the newly-diagnosed, in-care, postpartum, and LTFU groups, respectively. Approximately 81% of all participants reported disclosing to anyone; however, family members were typically disclosed to first. Ultimately, more women had disclosed to male partners (85%) than to family members (55%). Rates of disclosure to anyone varied between groups: newly-diagnosed and LTFU women had the lowest (56%) and highest (100%) rates, respectively (p = 0.001). However, family (p = 0.402) and male partner (p = 0.218) disclosure rates were similar between cascade groups. Across all cascade groups, fear of divorce and intimate partner violence deterred women from disclosing to male partners. However, participants reported that with assistance from healthcare workers, disclosure and post-disclosure experiences were mostly positive. Conclusion: In our study cohort, although disclosure to male partners was overall higher, family members appeared more approachable for initial disclosure. Across cascade groups, male partners were ultimately disclosed to at rates > 75%, with no significant inter-group differences. Fear appears to be a major reason for non-disclosure or delayed disclosure by women to male partners. Augmentation of healthcare workers' skills and involvement can mediate gender power differentials, minimize fear and shorten time to male partner disclosure among women living with HIV, regardless of their PMTCT cascade status. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT 01936753, September 3, 2013 (retrospectively registered). Copyright 2018 The Author(s).
SponsorsFunders: World Health Organization, Global Affairs Canada, and the Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program for providing financial support for this study.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85042865791&doi=10.1186%2fs12978-018-0474-y&partnerID=40&md5=3edef6e17cbeb8e3c538ea296c336634; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/9250
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