Role of critical elements in botulinum neurotoxin complex in toxin routing across intestinal and bronchial barriers
PublisherPublic Library of Science
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AbstractThe highly potent botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) inhibits neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular junctions resulting in flaccid muscle paralysis, respiratory arrest and death. In order to reach their neuronal cell targets, BoNT/A must cross epithelial cell barriers lining the intestines and airways. The toxin is produced as a large protein complex comprised of the neurotoxin and non-toxic neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs). Although NAPs are known to protect the toxin from harsh environments, their role in the movement of BoNT/A across epithelial barriers has not been fully characterized. In the current study, movement of the toxin across epithelial cells was examined macroscopically using a sensitive near infrared fluorescence transcytosis assay and microscopically using fluorescently labeled toxin and confocal microscopy. The studies show that the BoNT/A complex internalizes more rapidly than the pure toxin. The studies also show that one NAP protein, hemaglu-tinin 33 (Hn33), enhanced both the binding and movement of a deactivated recombinant botulinum neurotoxin A (DrBoNT) across epithelial cell monolayers and that the toxin associates with Hn33 on the cell surface. Collectively, the data demonstrate that, in addition to their protective role, NAPs and Hn33 play an important role in BoNT/A intoxication. Copyright This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85049499180&doi=10.1371%2fjournal.pone.0199524&partnerID=40&md5=dab23ee592265ef3fa1a1bad8946c5de; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/8931