Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorGauld, J.S.
dc.contributor.authorHu, H.
dc.contributor.authorKlein, D.J.
dc.date.accessioned2019-04-29T19:00:59Z
dc.date.available2019-04-29T19:00:59Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85054821902&doi=10.1371%2fjournal.pntd.0006759&partnerID=40&md5=41260a44706ed4c95058704f8e0d6829
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/8923
dc.description.abstractTyphoid fever is endemic in many developing countries. In the early 20 th century, newly industrializing countries including the United States successfully controlled typhoid as water treatment (chlorination/sand filtration) and improved sanitation became widespread. Enigmatically, typhoid remained endemic through the 1980s in Santiago, Chile, despite potable municipal water and widespread household sanitation. Data were collected across multiple stages of endemicity and control in Santiago, offering a unique resource for gaining insight into drivers of transmission in modern settings. We developed an individual-based mathematical model of typhoid transmission, with model components including distinctions between long-cycle and short-cycle transmission routes. Data used to fit the model included the prevalence of chronic carriers, seasonality, longitudinal incidence, and age-specific distributions of typhoid infection and disease. Our model captured the dynamics seen in Santiago across endemicity, vaccination, and environmental control. Both vaccination and diminished exposure to seasonal amplified long-cycle transmission contributed to the observed declines in typhoid incidence, with the vaccine estimated to elicit herd effects. Vaccines are important tools for controlling endemic typhoid, with even limited coverage eliciting herd effects in this setting. Removing the vehicles responsible for amplified long-cycle transmission and assessing the role of chronic carriers in endemic settings are additional key elements in designing programs to achieve accelerated control of endemic typhoid. Copyright 2018 Gauld et al. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.en_US
dc.description.urihttps://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006759en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
dc.subjectTyphoid Feveren_US
dc.subjectSalmonella typhien_US
dc.subjectparatyphoid feveren_US
dc.titleTyphoid fever in Santiago, Chile: Insights from a mathematical model utilizing venerable archived data from a successful disease control programen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pntd.0006759
dc.identifier.pmid30188904


This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record