JournalMolecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
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AbstractSeveral neuronal guidance proteins, known as semaphorin molecules, function in the immune system. This dual tissue performance has led to them being defined as "neuroimmune semaphorins". They have been shown to regulate T cell activation by serving as costimulatory molecules. Similar to classical costimulatory molecules, neuroimmune semaphorins are either constitutively or inducibly expressed on immune cells. In contrast to the classical costimulatory molecule function, the action of neuroimmune semaphorins requires the presence of two signals, the first one provided by TCR/MHC engagement, and the second one provided by B7/CD28 interaction. Thus, neuroimmune semaphorins serve as a "signal three" for immune cell activation and regulate the overall intensity of immune response. The current knowledge on their structures, multiple receptors, specific cell/tissue/organ expression, and distinct functions in different diseases are summarized and discussed in this review.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85057232721&doi=10.1186%2fs10020-018-0014-9&partnerID=40&md5=6c8875c115aabed47e764f13ebc78667; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/8758