Little cigars and cigarillos harbor diverse bacterial communities that differ between the tobacco and the wrapper
PublisherPublic Library of Science
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AbstractDespite their potential importance with regard to infectious and chronic diseases among tobacco users, microbial constituents of tobacco products lack characterization. Specifically, to our knowledge, there are no data describing the bacterial diversity of little cigars or cigarillos. To address this knowledge gap, we tested four brands of little cigars and cigarillos. Tobacco and wrapper subsamples (n = 132) were separately subjected to DNA extraction, followed by PCR amplification of the V3V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, and sequencing using Illumina HiSeq. Sequences were analyzed using QIIME and Phyloseq implemented in R. We identified 2,681 operational taxonomic units across all products. Significant differences in alpha and beta diversity were observed between Swisher Sweets and Cheyenne products. Alpha and beta diversity was also significantly different between tobacco and wrapper subsamples within the same product. Beta diversity analyses of only tobacco samples identified no significant differences in the bacterial microbiota of different lots of the same products; however, the microbiota in the wrapper differed significantly across lots for all brands. Overall, Firmicutes were found to dominate in the wrapper, whereas Proteobacteria were most abundant in the tobacco. At the genus level, Bacillus and Lactobacillus dominated in the wrappers, and Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas dominated in the tobacco. Our findings suggest that the bacterial microbiota of little cigars and cigarillos is diverse and differs significantly between the tobacco and the wrapper, and across brands. Future work is necessary to evaluate the potential public health implications of these findings.
SponsorsThis study was funded by grant number P50CA180523 from the National Cancer Institute and the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Tobacco Products awarded to the University of Maryland to authors PIC, EFM, and ARS, https:// www.cancer.gov/about-nci/budget/fact-book/ extramural-programs. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or the Food and Drug Administration. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Rights/Terms©2019 Chattopadhyay et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85061996022&doi=10.1371%2fjournal.pone.0211705&partnerID=40&md5=fc6656b188ae527d1315b82490d61257; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/8644