Effect of the live oral attenuated typhoid vaccine, Ty21a, on systemic and terminal ileum mucosal CD4 + T memory responses in humans
PublisherOxford University Press
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AbstractOur current understanding of CD4 + T-cell-mediated immunity (CMI) elicited by the oral live attenuated typhoid vaccine Ty21a is primarily derived from studies using peripheral blood. Very limited data are available in humans regarding mucosal immunity (especially CD4 + T) at the site of infection (e.g. terminal ileum; TI). Here using multiparametric flow cytometry, we examined the effect of Ty21a immunization on TI-lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and peripheral blood CD4 + T memory (T M) subsets in volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy. Interestingly, we observed significant increases in the frequencies of LPMC CD4 + T cells following Ty21a immunization, restricted to the T effector/memory (T EM)-CD45RA + (T EMRA) subset. Importantly, Ty21a immunization elicited Salmonella Typhi-responsive LPMC CD4 + T cells in all major T M subsets [interferon (IFN)γ and interleukin (IL)-17A in T EM; (IFN)γ and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)1β in T central/memory (T CM); and IL-2 in T EMRA ]. Subsequently, we analyzed LPMC S. Typhi-responsive CD4 + T cells in depth for multifunctional (MF) effectors. We found that LPMC CD4 + T EM responses were mostly MF, except for those cells exhibiting the characteristics associated with IL-17A responses. Finally, we compared mucosal to systemic responses and observed that LPMC CD4 + S. Typhi-specific responses were unique and distinct from their systemic counterparts. This study provides the first demonstration of S. Typhi-specific CD4 + T M responses in the human TI mucosa and provides valuable information about the generation of mucosal immune responses following oral Ty21a immunization. Copyright The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society for Immunology.
SponsorsThis work was supported by NIAID, NIH, DHHS grants R01-AI036525, U19-AI082655 [Cooperative Center for Human Immunology (CCHI)] and U19-AI109776 [Center of Excellence for Translational Research (CETR)]. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases or the National Institutes of Health.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85061573766&doi=10.1093%2fintimm%2fdxy070&partnerID=40&md5=d1a7456585d2f6fdae894843bffbcc05; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/8598
- Association between <i>S</i>. Typhi-specific memory CD4+ and CD8+ T responses in the terminal ileum mucosa and in peripheral blood elicited by the live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a in humans.
- Authors: Booth JS, Goldberg E, Patil SA, Greenwald BD, Sztein MB
- Issue date: 2019
- Systemic and Terminal Ileum Mucosal Immunity Elicited by Oral Immunization With the Ty21a Typhoid Vaccine in Humans.
- Authors: Booth JS, Patil SA, Ghazi L, Barnes R, Fraser CM, Fasano A, Greenwald BD, Sztein MB
- Issue date: 2017 Nov
- Attenuated Oral Typhoid Vaccine Ty21a Elicits Lamina Propria and Intra-Epithelial Lymphocyte Tissue-Resident Effector Memory CD8 T Responses in the Human Terminal Ileum.
- Authors: Booth JS, Patil SA, Goldberg E, Barnes RS, Greenwald BD, Sztein MB
- Issue date: 2019
- Oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a elicits antigen-specific resident memory CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells in the human terminal ileum lamina propria and epithelial compartments.
- Authors: Booth JS, Goldberg E, Barnes RS, Greenwald BD, Sztein MB
- Issue date: 2020 Feb 25
- Cross-reactive multifunctional CD4+ T cell responses against Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B in humans following immunization with live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a.
- Authors: Wahid R, Fresnay S, Levine MM, Sztein MB
- Issue date: 2016 Dec