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AbstractViral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of clinically similar diseases that can be caused by enveloped RNA viruses primarily from the families Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Hantaviridae, and Flaviviridae. Clinically, this group of diseases has in common fever, fatigue, dizziness, muscle aches, and other associated symptoms that can progress to vascular leakage, bleeding and multiorgan failure. Most of these viruses are zoonotic causing asymptomatic infections in the primary host, but in human beings, the infection can be lethal. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the T-cell response is needed for protection against VHF, but can also cause damage to the host, and play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Here, we present a review of the T-cell immune responses to VHF and insights into the possible ways to improve counter-measures for these viral agents. Copyright 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
SponsorsThis literature review relies upon salary support for the authors. FP-C was supported by the Universidad de Antioquia, Corporacion Universitaria Remington, and Fundacion Sapiencia in Medellin, Colombia for an eight-month research position at the Institute of Human Virology of the University of Maryland School of Medicine Baltimore, USA. MSS was supported by the Institute of Human Virology (IHV), University of Maryland School of Medicine and by the EU Commission Horizon2020 STARBIOS2 grant no. 709517. SMM and JCZ were supported by the Institute of Human Virology (IHV), University of Maryland School of Medicine.
Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Yellow fever virus
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85062330234&doi=10.3390%2fvaccines7010011&partnerID=40&md5=ab23a293a5980091030abe493c5d60e8; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/8565