• A roadmap for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine development based on volunteer challenge studies

      Levine, Myron M.; Barry, Eileen M.; Chen, Wilbur H. (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2019-03-20)
      Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of travelers’ diarrhea and of diarrhea among young children in developing countries. Experimental challenge studies in adult volunteers have played a pivotal role in establishing ETEC as an enteric pathogen, elucidating its pathogenesis by identifying specific virulence attributes, characterizing the human immune response to clinical and sub-clinical ETEC infection and assessing preliminarily the clinical acceptability, immunogenicity and efficacy of prototype ETEC vaccines. This review provides a historical perspective of experimental challenge studies with ETEC. It summarizes pioneering early studies carried out by investigators at the University of Maryland School of Medicine to show how those studies provided key information that influenced the directions taken by many research groups to develop vaccines to prevent ETEC. In addition, key experimental challenge studies undertaken at other institutions will also be cited. © 2019 The Author(s).