• Deletions in guaBA and htrA but not clpX or rfaL constitute a live-attenuated vaccine strain of Salmonella Newport to protect against serogroup C2-C3 Salmonella in mice

      Fuche, Fabien J.; Jones, Jennifer A.; Ramachandran, Girish; Higginson, Ellen E.; Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M. (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2019-07-12)
      Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a leading cause of foodborne infections worldwide, and serogroups B, C1, C2-C3 and D are the most common serogroups associated with human disease. While live vaccine candidates that protect against S. Typhimurium (serogroup B) and S. Enteritidis (serogroup D) have been described by us and others, far less effort has been directed towards vaccines that target either serogroup C1 or C2-C3 Salmonella. Here we describe a Salmonella Newport-based live-attenuated vaccine (serogroup C2-C3). Deletion of the genes clpX or rfaL, previously used in live vaccines to attenuate S. Typhimurium and/or S. Enteritidis, failed to attenuate S. Newport. However, we found that deletion of either guaBA or htrA raised the 50% lethal dose of S. Newport in an intraperitoneal infection model in BALB/c mice. Our live-attenuated vaccine candidate CVD 1966 (S. Newport ΔguaBA ΔhtrA) elicited strong antibody responses against COPS, flagellin and outer membrane proteins when administered intraperitoneally or orally. Following lethal challenge with the parental virulent strain of S. Newport, we observed vaccine efficacies of 53% for immunization via the intraperitoneal route and 47% for immunization via the oral route. Following intraperiteonal immunization, the vaccine also significantly reduced the bacterial burden of challenge organisms in the liver and spleen. Interestingly, reducing the LPS chain length by deleting rfaL did not induce a stronger immune response towards surface antigens, and failed to elicit any protection against lethal homologous challenge. In conclusion, we have developed a live-attenuated Salmonella serogroup C2-C3 vaccine that we are further evaluating. © 2018 The Author(s).
    • Global phylogenomics of multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica serotype kentucky ST198

      Hawkey, J.; Weill, F.-X.; Fricke, W.F. (Microbiology Society, 2019)
      Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky can be a common causative agent of salmonellosis, usually associated with consumption of contaminated poultry. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to multiple drugs, including ciprofloxacin, is an emerging problem within this serotype. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate the phylogenetic structure and AMR content of 121 S. enterica serotype Kentucky sequence type 198 isolates from five continents. Population structure was inferred using phylogenomic analysis and whole genomes were compared to investigate changes in gene content, with a focus on acquired AMR genes. Our analysis showed that multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. enterica serotype Kentucky isolates belonged to a single lineage, which we estimate emerged circa 1989 following the acquisition of the AMR-associated Salmonella genomic island (SGI) 1 (variant SGI1-K) conferring resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. Phylo-geographical analysis indicates this clone emerged in Egypt before disseminating into Northern, Southern and Western Africa, then to the Middle East, Asia and the European Union. The MDR clone has since accumulated various substitution mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase (gyrA) and DNA topoisomerase IV (parC), such that most strains carry three QRDR mutations which together confer resistance to ciprofloxacin. The majority of AMR genes in the S. enterica serotype Kentucky genomes were carried either on plasmids or SGI structures. Remarkably, each genome of the MDR clone carried a different SGI1-K derivative structure; this variation could be attributed to IS26-mediated insertions and deletions, which appear to have hampered previous attempts to trace the clone’s evolution using sub-WGS resolution approaches. Several different AMR plasmids were also identified, encoding resistance to chloramphenicol, third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and/or azithromycin. These results indicate that most MDR S. enterica serotype Kentucky circulating globally result from the clonal expansion of a single lineage that acquired chromosomal AMR genes 30 years ago, and has continued to diversify and accumulate additional resistances to last-line oral antimicrobials. This article contains data hosted by Microreact. Copyright 2019 The Authors.
    • Global proteomic profiling of salmonella infection by a Giant phage

      Weintraub, S.T.; Redzuan, N.H.M.; Barton, M.K. (American Society for Microbiology, 2019)
      The 240-kb Salmonella phage SPN3US genome encodes 264 gene products, many of which are functionally uncharacterized. We have previously used mass spectrometry to define the proteomes of wild-type and mutant forms of the SPN3US virion. In this study, we sought to determine whether this technique was suitable for the characterization of the SPN3US proteome during liquid infection. Mass spectrometry of SPN3US-infected cells identified 232 SPN3US and 1,994 Salmonella proteins. SPN3US proteins with related functions, such as proteins with roles in DNA replication, transcription, and virion formation, were coordinately expressed in a temporal manner. Mass spectral counts showed the four most abundant SPN3US proteins to be the major capsid protein, two head ejection proteins, and the functionally unassigned protein gp22. This high abundance of gp22 in infected bacteria contrasted with its absence from mature virions, suggesting that it might be the scaffold protein, an essential head morphogenesis protein yet to be identified in giant phages. We identified homologs to SPN3US gp22 in 45 related giant phages, including KZ, whose counterpart is also abundant in infected bacteria but absent in the virion. We determined the KZ counterpart to be cleaved in vitro by its prohead protease, an event that has been observed to promote head maturation of some other phages. Our findings are consistent with a scaffold protein assignment for SPN3US gp22, although direct evidence is required for its confirmation. These studies demonstrate the power of mass spectral analyses for facilitating the acquisition of new knowledge into the molecular events of viral infection. IMPORTANCE: “Giant” phages with genomes 200 kb are being isolated in increasing numbers from a range of environments. With hosts such as Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Erwinia amylovora, these phages are of interest for phage therapy of multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, our understanding of how these complex phages interact with their hosts is impeded by the proportion (80%) of their gene products that are functionally uncharacterized. To develop the repertoire of techniques for analysis of phages, we analyzed a liquid infection of Salmonella phage SPN3US (240-kb genome) using third-generation mass spectrometry. We observed the temporal production of phage proteins whose genes collectively represent 96% of the SPN3US genome. These findings demonstrate the sensitivity of mass spectrometry for global proteomic profiling of virus-infected cells, and the identification of a candidate for a major head morphogenesis protein will facilitate further studies into giant phage head assembly.
    • Maternal Antibodies Elicited by Immunization With an O- Polysaccharide Glycoconjugate Vaccine Protect Infant Mice Against Lethal Salmonella Typhimurium Infection

      Baliban, S.M.; Curtis, B.; Amin, M.N.; Levine, M.M.; Pasetti, M.F.; Simon, R. (Frontiers, 2019)
      Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a leading cause of pediatric invasive bacterial infections in sub-Saharan Africa with high associated case fatality rates in children under 5 years old. We have developed glycoconjugate vaccines consisting of the lipid A-removed surface polysaccharide of NTS, core and O-polysaccharide (COPS), and the flagellar monomer protein (FliC) from the homologous serovar as the carrier. We previously established that COPS:FliC was immunogenic and protective in mice immunized as adults or infants; however, the brief period of murine infancy precluded the evaluation of protection against invasive NTS (iNTS) disease in early life. In the present study, we used a mouse model of maternal immunization to investigate transmission of S. Typhimurium COPS:FliC-induced maternal antibodies and protection against lethal iNTS challenge in infant mice. We found that vaccinated dams developed high levels of COPS- and FliC-specific IgG, which were transferred to their offspring. Sera from both vaccinated mothers and their litters mediated complement-dependent bactericidal activity in-vitro. Passively immunized 2-week old infant mice born to vaccinated mothers were fully protected from challenge with an S. Typhimurium blood isolate from sub-Saharan Africa. The pre-clinical findings reported herein demonstrate that anti-COPS:FliC antibodies induced by vaccination are sufficient for protection of murine infants against experimental S. Typhimurium infection. By underscoring the protective role of antibody, our results suggest that maintaining an adequate titer of protective anti-Salmonella antibodies during early life, either through pediatric or maternal COPS:FliC vaccination, may reduce iNTS disease in young children in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi osteomyelitis in a young adult with sickle cell and thalassemia traits: A possible association

      Stephanie, S.; Schmalzle, S.A. (Elsevier Ltd, 2019)
      Salmonella osteomyelitis is known to occur in immunocompromised and sickle cell disease patients. It rarely occurs in other hosts. We present a case of chronic femoral osteomyelitis due to S. enterica serovar Typhi seen in a Maryland resident. Potential risk factors included traveling to an endemic area as well as a newly diagnosed sickle cell trait and thalassemia trait. It is postulated that less severe hemoglobinopathies may also contribute to an elevated risk of Salmonella osteomyelitis. Copyright 2018 The Authors