• Effect of fish oil supplement administration method on tolerability and adherence: A randomized pilot clinical trial

      Malinowski, S.S.; Barber, K.E.; Kishk, O.A. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2019)
      Objectives: Anecdotally, several strategies have been suggested in order to improve tolerability of fish oil supplements, but there is little evidence supporting any of these strategies. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a difference among four methods of oral administration of fish oil supplementation in terms of tolerability and adherence. Methods: A randomized, prospective, open-label, four-arm pilot study was conducted on 60 healthy adult subjects randomized to different fish oil supplement administration methods with (1) milk, (2) food, (3) an empty stomach, and (4) frozen capsules prior to ingestion. Each subject was instructed to take two capsules three times daily for 30 consecutive days. Adherence was assessed by pill counts. Adverse effects were assessed by survey and patient exit interview. Results: No apparent differences were demonstrated among the four administration groups in terms of adherence, reasons for non-adherence, or self-reported adverse effects. Conclusions: Method of administration did not affect rates of adherence or incidence of adverse effects in a small cohort of healthy adults taking fish oil supplement capsules for 30 days. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01471366. Registered November 16, 2011. Copyright The Author(s).
    • Introduction of new vaccines for immunization in pregnancy – Programmatic, regulatory, safety and ethical considerations

      Kochhar, Sonali; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Ortiz, Justin R. (Elsevier Ltd., 2019-05-31)
      Immunizing pregnant women is a promising strategy to reduce infectious disease-related morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their infants. Important pre-requisites for the successful introduction of new vaccines for immunization in pregnancy include political commitment and adequate financial resources: trained, committed and sufficient numbers of healthcare workers to deliver the vaccines; close integration of immunization programs with antenatal care and Maternal and Child Health services; adequate access to antenatal care by pregnant women in the country (especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC)); and a high proportion of births occurring in health facilities (to ensure maternal and neonatal follow-up can be done). The framework needed to advance a vaccine program from product licensure to successful country-level implementation includes establishing and organizing evidence for anticipated vaccine program impact, developing supportive policies, and translating policies into local action. International and national coordination efforts, proactive planning from conception to implementation of the programs (including country-level policy making, planning, and implementation, regulatory guidance, pharmacovigilance)and country-specific and cultural factors must be taken into account during the vaccines introduction. © 2019 The Authors
    • Type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis

      Veronese, N.; Cooper, C.; Reginster, J.-Y. (W.B. Saunders, 2019)
      Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoarthritis (OA) are common diseases that frequently co-exist, along with overweight/obesity. While the mechanical impact of excess body weight on joints may explain lower limb OA, we sought to explore whether T2DM is linked to OA outside of excess weight and whether T2DM may play a role in OA pathophysiology. The consequence of T2DM on OA outcomes is a question of research interest. Methods: We conducted a critical review of the literature to explore the association between T2DM and OA, whether any association is site-specific for OA, and whether the presence of T2DM impacts on OA outcomes. We also reviewed the literature to assess the safety of anti-OA treatments in patients with T2DM. Results: T2DM has a pathogenic effect on OA through 2 major pathways involving oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation resulting from chronic hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. T2DM is a risk factor for OA progression and has a negative impact on arthroplasty outcomes. Evidence is mounting for safety concerns with some of the most frequently prescribed anti-OA medications, including paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections, while other anti-OA medications may be safely prescribed in OA patients with T2DM, such as glucosamine and intra-articular hyaluronic acid. Conclusions: Future research is needed to better understand whether diabetes control and prevention can modulate OA occurrence and progression. The selection of therapy to treat OA symptoms in patients with T2DM may require careful consideration of the evidence based to avoid untoward safety issues. Copyright 2019 The Authors