• Disparities in diffuse cortical white matter integrity between socioeconomic groups

      Shaked, D.; Leibel, D.K.; Katzel, L.I.; Davatzikos, C.; Gullapalli, R.P.; Seliger, S.L.; Evans, M.K.; Zonderman, A.B.; Waldstein, S.R. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2019)
      There is a growing literature demonstrating a link between lower socioeconomic status (SES) and poorer neuroanatomical health, such as smaller total and regional gray and white matter volumes, as well as greater white matter lesion volumes. Little is known, however, about the relation between SES and white matter integrity. Here we examined the relation between SES and white matter integrity of the brain's primary cortical regions, and evaluated potential moderating influences of age and self-identified race. Participants were 192 neurologically intact, community-dwelling African American and White adults (mean age = 52 years; 44% male, 60% White, low SES = 52%) from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) SCAN study. Participants underwent 3.0-T cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to estimate regional fractional anisotropy (FA) to quantify the brain's white matter integrity and trace to capture diffusivity. Multiple regression analyses examined independent and interactive associations of SES, age, and race with FA of the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes bilaterally. Sensitivity analyses assessed the influence of several biopsychosocial risk factors on these associations. Exploratory analyses examined these relations with trace and using additional SES indicators. Results indicated there were no significant interactions of SES, age, and race for any region. Individuals with low SES had lower FA in all regions, and higher trace in the right and left frontal, right and left temporal, and left occipital lobes. Findings remained largely unchanged after inclusion of sensitivity variables. Older age was associated with lower FA and greater trace for all regions, except for the right temporal lobe with FA. No main effects were found for race in FA, and Whites had higher trace values in the parietal lobes. Novel findings of this study indicate that relative to the high SES group, low SES was associated with poorer white matter integrity and greater diffusivity. These results may, in part, reflect exposures to various biopsychosocial risk factors experienced by those of lower SES across the lifespan, and may help explain the preponderance of cognitive and functional disparities between socioeconomic groups. Copyright 2019 Shaked, Leibel, Katzel, Davatzikos, Gullapalli, Seliger, Erus, Evans, Zonderman and Waldstein.
    • Disparities in diffuse cortical white matter integrity between socioeconomic groups

      Shaked, D.; Leibel, D.K.; Katzel, L.I. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2019)
      There is a growing literature demonstrating a link between lower socioeconomic status (SES) and poorer neuroanatomical health, such as smaller total and regional gray and white matter volumes, as well as greater white matter lesion volumes. Little is known, however, about the relation between SES and white matter integrity. Here we examined the relation between SES and white matter integrity of the brain�s primary cortical regions, and evaluated potential moderating influences of age and self-identified race. Participants were 192 neurologically intact, community-dwelling African American and White adults (mean age = 52 years; 44% male, 60% White, low SES = 52%) from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) SCAN study. Participants underwent 3.0-T cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to estimate regional fractional anisotropy (FA) to quantify the brain�s white matter integrity and trace to capture diffusivity. Multiple regression analyses examined independent and interactive associations of SES, age, and race with FA of the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes bilaterally. Sensitivity analyses assessed the influence of several biopsychosocial risk factors on these associations. Exploratory analyses examined these relations with trace and using additional SES indicators. Results indicated there were no significant interactions of SES, age, and race for any region. Individuals with low SES had lower FA in all regions, and higher trace in the right and left frontal, right and left temporal, and left occipital lobes. Findings remained largely unchanged after inclusion of sensitivity variables. Older age was associated with lower FA and greater trace for all regions, except for the right temporal lobe with FA. No main effects were found for race in FA, and Whites had higher trace values in the parietal lobes. Novel findings of this study indicate that relative to the high SES group, low SES was associated with poorer white matter integrity and greater diffusivity. These results may, in part, reflect exposures to various biopsychosocial risk factors experienced by those of lower SES across the lifespan, and may help explain the preponderance of cognitive and functional disparities between socioeconomic groups. Copyright 2019 Shaked, Leibel, Katzel, Davatzikos, Gullapalli, Seliger, Erus, Evans, Zonderman and Waldstein.
    • Racial/ethnic disparities in prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension among US adults following application of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline

      Al Kibria, Gulam Muhammed (Elsevier Inc., 2019-03-14)
      The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults recommends reduced systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP)cutoffs to define hypertension (i.e., by changing these from ≥140/90 to ≥130/80 mmHg), including new recommendations about indications and goals of antihypertensive treatment. This study reported the differences in age-adjusted prevalence and treatment status of hypertension according to race among US adults per the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–16 data was analyzed. The main outcomes were age-adjusted prevalence and treatment status of hypertension among adults aged ≥20 years. After prevalence estimation, other proportions were obtained. The analysis included 16,103 adults (mean age: 47.6 years, 51.8% women). The age-adjusted proportions of adults with hypertension (59.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 57.4%–60.6%), treatment-eligible for hypertension (49.3%, 95% CI: 47.7%–50.8%), and unmet treatment goals (63.8%, 95% CI: 60.0%–67.5%)among the treated were highest among non-Hispanic blacks. A large proportion of Mexican-Americans (46.5%, 95% CI: 42.0%–51.0%)and people of other races/ethnicities (49.3%, 95% CI: 45.5%–53.0%)were not receiving treatment despite having indication. Non-Hispanic blacks also had the highest prevalence of stage 2 hypertension. Among all races, prevalence, treatment-eligibility, and unmet treatment goals were higher among people with older age, male gender, diabetes, higher body weight, and higher cardiovascular disease risk while the majority of younger, lower/normal body weight, or non-diabetic people were untreated despite being eligible for treatment. The prevalence, treatment-eligibility, and unmet goals were substantially higher among non-Hispanic blacks. Moreover, disparities exist in treatment where Mexican-Americans and people of ‘other races/ethnicities’ were largely untreated despite having indication. © 2019 The Author