• Bursting at the seams: Molecular mechanisms mediating astrocyte swelling

      Lafrenaye, A.D.; Simard, J.M. (MDPI AG, 2019)
      Brain swelling is one of the most robust predictors of outcome following brain injury, including ischemic, traumatic, hemorrhagic, metabolic or other injury. Depending on the specific type of insult, brain swelling can arise from the combined space-occupying effects of extravasated blood, extracellular edema fluid, cellular swelling, vascular engorgement and hydrocephalus. Of these, arguably the least well appreciated is cellular swelling. Here, we explore current knowledge regarding swelling of astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain, and the one most likely to contribute to pathological brain swelling. We review the major molecular mechanisms identified to date that contribute to or mitigate astrocyte swelling via ion transport, and we touch upon the implications of astrocyte swelling in health and disease. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.