• The role of M3 muscarinic receptor ligand-induced kinase signaling in colon cancer progression

      Tolaymat, M.; Larabee, S.M.; Hu, S. (MDPI AG, 2019)
      Despite a reduction in incidence over the past decade, colon cancer remains the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States; recent demographics suggest this disease is now afflicting younger persons. M 3 muscarinic receptor (M 3 R) mRNA and protein are over-expressed in colon cancer, and M 3 R can be activated by both traditional (e.g., acetylcholine) and non-traditional (e.g., bile acids) muscarinic ligands. In this review, we weigh the data supporting a prominent role for key protein kinases downstream of M 3 R activation in promoting colon cancer progression and dissemination. Specifically, we explore the roles that downstream activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (MAPK/ERK), protein kinase C, p38 MAPK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathways play in mediating colon cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration and invasion. We assess the impact of M 3 R-stimulated induction of selected matrix metalloproteinases germane to these hallmarks of colon cancer progression. In this context, we also critically review the reproducibility of findings derived from a variety of in vivo and in vitro colon cancer models, and their fidelity to human disease. Finally, we summarize the therapeutic potential of targeting various steps from ligand-M 3 R interaction to the activation of key downstream molecules. Copyright 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.