Recent Submissions

  • MicroRNA410 Inhibits Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling via Regulation of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase

    Gao, H. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-07-09)
    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) upregulation in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs) is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) progression and pulmonary vascular remodeling. The underlying mechanisms regulating NAMPT expression are still not clear. In this study, we aimed to study the regulation of NAMPT expression by microRNA410 (miR410) in hPAECs and explore the role of miR410 in the pathogenesis of experimental pulmonary hypertension. We show that miR410 targets the 3′ UTR of NAMPT and that, concomitant with NAMPT upregulation, miR410 is downregulated in lungs of mice exposed to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Our results also demonstrate that miR410 directly inhibits NAMPT expression. Overexpression of miR410 in hPAECs inhibits basal and VEGF-induced proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis of hPAECs, while miR410 inhibition via antagomirs has the opposite effect. Finally, administration of miR410 mimics in vivo attenuated induction of NAMPT in PAECs and prevented the development of HPH in mice. Our results highlight the role of miR410 in the regulation of NAMPT expression in hPAECs and show that miR410 plays a potential role in PAH pathobiology by targeting a modulator of pulmonary vascular remodeling. © 2019, The Author(s).
  • Human cytomegalovirus evades antibody-mediated immunity through endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the FcRn receptor

    Liu, X. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-07-09)
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can persistently infect humans, but how HCMV avoids humoral immunity is not clear. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) controls IgG transport from the mother to the fetus and prolongs IgG half-life. Here we show that US11 inhibits the assembly of FcRn with β2m and retains FcRn in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), consequently blocking FcRn trafficking to the endosome. Furthermore, US11 recruits the ubiquitin enzymes Derlin-1, TMEM129 and UbE2J2 to engage FcRn, consequently initiating the dislocation of FcRn from the ER to the cytosol and facilitating its degradation. Importantly, US11 inhibits IgG-FcRn binding, resulting in a reduction of IgG transcytosis across intestinal or placental epithelial cells and IgG degradation in endothelial cells. Hence, these results identify the mechanism by which HCMV infection exploits an ER-associated degradation pathway through US11 to disable FcRn functions. These results have implications for vaccine development and immune surveillance. © 2019, The Author(s).
  • Age-associated heterogeneity of Ty21A-induced T cell responses to HLA-E restricted Salmonella typhi antigen presentation

    Rudolph, M. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2019-01-01)
    Human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causative agent of typhoid fever-a life-threatening disease of great global health significance, particularly in the developing world. Ty21a is an oral live-attenuated vaccine that protects against the development of typhoid disease in part by inducing robust T cell responses, among which multifunctional CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play an important role. Following Ty21a vaccination, a significant component of adult CTL have shown to be targeted to S. Typhi antigen presented by the conserved major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib molecule, human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E). S. Typhi challenge studies have shown that baseline, multifunctional HLA-E responsive T cells are associated with protection from, and delayed onset of, typhoid disease. However, despite the overwhelming burden of typhoid fever in school-aged children, and due to limited availability of pediatric samples, incomplete information is available regarding these important HLA-E-restricted responses in children, even though studies have shown that younger children may be less likely to develop protective cell mediated immune (CMI) responses than adults following vaccination. To address this gap, we have studied this phenomenon in depth by using mass cytometry to analyze pediatric and adult T cell responses to HLA-E-restricted S. Typhi antigen presentation, before and after Ty21a vaccination. Herein, we show variable responses in all age strata following vaccination among T effector memory (TEM) and T effector memory CD45RA+ (TEMRA) cells based on conventional gating analysis. However, by utilizing the dimensionality reduction tool tSNE (t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding), we are able to identify diverse, highly multifunctional gut-homing- TEM and TEMRA clusters of cells which are more abundant in adult and older pediatric participants than in younger children. These findings highlight a potential age-associated maturation of otherwise conserved HLA-E restricted T cell responses. Such insights, coupled with the marked importance of multifunctional T cell responses to combat infection, may better inform future pediatric vaccination strategies against S. Typhi and other infectious diseases. Copyright © 2019 the authors.
  • Attenuated oral typhoid vaccine Ty21A elicits lamina propria and intra-epithelial lymphocyte tissue-resident effector memory CD8 T responses in the human terminal ileum

    Booth, J. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2019-01-01)
    Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) are newly defined memory T cells (TM) distinct from circulating TM subsets which have the potential to mount rapid protective immune responses at the site of infection. However, very limited information is available regarding the role and contribution of TRM in vaccine-mediated immune responses in humans at the site of infection. Here, we studied the role and contribution of tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) located in the terminal ileum (TI) (favored site of infection for S. Typhi) following oral Ty21a immunization in humans. We examined TI-lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IEL) CD8+ TRM subsets obtained from healthy volunteers undergoing medically-indicated colonoscopies who were either immunized with Ty21a or unvaccinated. No significant differences in the frequencies of LPMC CD8+ TRM and CD8+CD69+CD103– T cells subsets were observed following Ty21a-immunization. However, LPMC CD8+ TRM exhibited significantly higher levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A, and TNF-α) ex-vivo in Ty21a-vaccinated than in unvaccinated volunteers. LPMC CD8+ TRM S. Typhi-specific responses were evaluated using S. Typhi-infected targets and found to produce significantly higher levels of S. Typhi-specific IL-17A. In contrast, LPMC CD8+CD69+CD103- T cells produced significantly increased S. Typhi-specific levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-17A. Finally, we assessed CD8+ TRM in IEL and observed that the frequency of IEL CD8+ TRM is significantly lower following Ty21a immunization. However, ex-vivo IEL CD8+ TRM elicited by Ty21a immunization spontaneously produced significantly higher levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-2, and TNF-α). This study provides the first demonstration of the effect of oral Ty21a vaccination on CD8+ TRM subsets (spontaneous and S. Typhi-specific) responses in the LPMC and IEL compartment of the human terminal ileum mucosa, contributing novel information to our understanding of the generation of mucosal immune responses following oral Ty21a-immunization. Copyright © 2019 Booth, Patil, Goldberg, Barnes, Greenwald and Sztein. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
  • Clinical endpoints for efficacy studies

    Porter, C. (Elsevier Ltd., 2019-01-01)
    Well-established, validated and clinically meaningful primary and secondary endpoints are critical inadvancing vaccines through proof of principal studies, licensure and pre-qualification. To that end, thefield of vaccine development forShigella, enterotoxigenicEscherichia coli(ETEC) as well as other entericpathogens would benefit greatly from a focused review of clinical endpoints and the use of common end-points across the field to enable study-to-study comparisons as well as comparative assessmentsbetween vaccine candidates. A workshop was conducted to review clinical endpoints from controlledhuman challenge studies, field studies in naïve adult travelers and pediatric studies in low-middleincome countries and to develop a consensus on clinical endpoints for future vaccine trials.Following sequential presentations on different study designs (CHIM, travelers’ efficacy and pediatricefficacy), workshop participants broke into three simultaneous workgroups focused on those studydesigns to discuss a number of topics key to clinical endpoints specific to each study design.Previously utilized endpoints were reviewed with an eye towards potentially novel endpoints for futurestudies and consideration of the disease parameters and spectrum of disease targeted for prevention. Thestrength of support among workshop participants for the use of various endpoints is summarized as arerecommendations for additional endpoints to be considered in future studies. It is anticipated that thisreport will facilitate endpoint determination in future efficacy trials of vaccine candidates.
  • Antibodies to peptides in semiconserved domains of RIFINs and STEVORs correlate with malaria exposure

    Zhou, A. (American Society for Microbiology, 2019-03-01)
    The repetitive interspersed family (RIFIN) and the subtelomeric variable open reading frame (STEVOR) family represent two of three major Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen families involved in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion and are potential targets in the development of natural immunity. Protein and peptide microarrays populated with RIFINs and STEVORs associated with severe malaria vulnerability in Malian children were probed with adult and pediatric sera to identify epitopes that reflect malaria exposure. Adult sera recognized and reacted with greater intensity to all STEVOR proteins than pediatric sera did. Serorecognition of and seroreactivity to peptides within the semiconserved domain of STEVORs increased with age and seasonal malaria exposure, while serorecognition and seroreactivity increased for the semiconserved and second hypervariable domains of RIFINs only with age. Serologic responses to RIFIN and STEVOR peptides within the semiconserved domains may play a role in natural immunity to severe malaria.
  • Household costs of diarrhea by etiology in 7 countries, the Global Enterics Mulitcenter Study (GEMS)

    Zimmermann, M. (Oxford University Press, 2019-04-01)
    Background. Although there are many overlapping features, pediatric diarrheal diseases can vary in severity, duration, clinical manifestations, and sequelae according to the causal pathogen, which in turn can impact the economic burden on patients and their families. We aimed to evaluate the household costs of diarrheal disease by pathogen in 7 countries. Methods. We analyzed data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a prospective, age-stratified, matched case- control study of moderate to severe diarrheal disease among children aged 0-59 months in 7 low-income countries; 4 in Africa (Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, The Gambia) and 3 in Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan). Demographic, epidemiological, economic, and clinical data were collected, and a stool sample was obtained for microbiological analysis at enrollment. We used a multivariate generalized linear model to assess the effect of rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, heat-stable toxin (ST)-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC [ST only or LT plus ST]), Shigella, Campylobacter jejuni, norovirus GII, Vibrio cholerae O1, age, gender, in/ outpatient, and country on total costs to the patient/family. Results. Household out-of-pocket costs were higher in Mali than any other country. Within countries, household cost differences between pathogens were minimal and not statistically significantly different. Conclusions. We found no significant differences in household costs by pathogen. Despite data limitations, understanding pathogen-specific household costs (or lack thereof) is useful, as decision-makers could consider broader illness cost information and its relevance to a particular pathogen's economic burden and contribution to poverty when deciding which pathogens to target for interventions. © The Author(s) 2019.
  • Shiga toxin type 1a (Stx1a) reduces the toxicity of the more potent stx2a in vivo and in vitro

    Petro, C. (American Society for Microbiology, 2019-04-01)
    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes foodborne outbreaks of bloody diarrhea. There are two major types of immunologically distinct Stxs: Stx1a and Stx2a. Stx1a is more cytotoxic to Vero cells than Stx2a, but Stx2a has a lower 50% lethal dose (LD50) in mice. Epidemiological data suggest that infections by STEC strains that produce only Stx2a progress more often to a life-threatening sequela of infection called hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) than isolates that make Stx1a only or produce both Stx1a and Stx2a. In this study, we found that an E. coli O26:H11 strain that produces both Stx1a and Stx2a was virulent in streptomycin- and ciprofloxacin-treated mice and that mice were protected by administration of an anti-Stx2 antibody. However, we discovered that in the absence of ciprofloxacin, neutralization of Stx1a enhanced the virulence of the strain, a result that corroborated our previous finding that Stx1a reduces the toxicity of Stx2a by the oral route. We further found that intraperitoneal administration of the purified Stx1a B subunit delayed the mean time to death of mice intoxicated with Stx2a and reduced the cytotoxic effect of Stx2a on Vero cells. Taken together, our data suggest that Stx1a reduces both the pathogenicity of Stx2 in vivo and cytotoxicity in vitro.
  • Evaluating shigella flexneri pathogenesis in the human enteroid model

    Ranganathan, S. (American Society for Microbiology, 2019-04-01)
    The enteric pathogen Shigella is one of the leading causes of moderate-to-severe diarrhea and death in young children in developing countries. Transformed cell lines and animal models have been widely used to study Shigella pathogenesis. In addition to altered physiology, transformed cell lines are composed of a single cell type that does not sufficiently represent the complex multicellular environment of the human colon. Most available animal models do not accurately mimic human disease. The human intestinal enteroid model, derived from LGR5 stem cell-containing intestinal crypts from healthy subjects, represents a technological leap in human gastrointestinal system modeling and provides a more physiologically relevant system that includes multiple cell types and features of the human intestine. We established the utility of this model for studying basic aspects of Shigella pathogenesis and host responses. In this study, we show that Shigella flexneri is capable of infecting and replicating intracellularly in human enteroids derived from different segments of the intestine. Apical invasion by S. flexneri is very limited but increases 10-fold when enteroids are differentiated to include M cells. Invasion via the basolateral surface was at least 2-log10 units more efficient than apical infection. Increased secretion of interleukin-8 and higher expression levels of the mucin glycoprotein Muc2 were observed in the enteroids following S. flexneri infection. The human enteroid model promises to bridge some of the gaps between traditional cell culture, animal models, and human infection. Copyright © 2019 Ranganathan et al.
  • The impact of vaccination and prior exposure on stool shedding of salmonella typhi and salmonella paratyphi in 6 controlled human infection studies

    Gibani, M. (Oxford University Press, 2019-04-08)
    Background Shedding of Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi in the stool or urine leads to contamination of food or water, which is a prerequisite for transmission of enteric fever. Currently, there are limited data on the effect of vaccination or prior exposure on stool shedding. Methods Six Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi human challenge studies were conducted between 2011 and 2017. Participants were either unvaccinated or vaccinated with 1 of 4 vaccines: Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS), Vi-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TT), live oral Ty21a vaccine, or an experimental vaccine (M01ZH09). Daily stool cultures were collected for 14 days after challenge. Results There were 4934 stool samples collected from 430 volunteers. Participants who received Vi-PS or Vi-TT shed less than unvaccinated participants (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.77; P =.010 and OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19-0.91, P =.029 for Vi-PS and Vi-TT, respectively). Higher anti-Vi immunoglobulin G titers were associated with less shedding of S. Typhi (P <.0001). A nonsignificant reduction in shedding was associated with Ty21a vaccine (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.27-1.20; P =.140). Individuals previously exposed to S. Typhi shed less than previously unexposed individuals (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; P =.016). Shedding of S. Typhi was more common than S. Paratyphi. Conclusions Prior vaccination with Vi vaccines, or natural infection, reduces onward transmission of S. Typhi. Field trials of Vi-TT should be designed to detect indirect protection, reflecting the consequence of reduced stool shedding observed in the human challenge model. © 2018 The Author(s).
  • Risk factors for death among children 0-59 months of age with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Manhiça district, southern Mozambique

    Acácio, S. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2019-04-15)
    Background: Despite major improvements in child survival rates, the number of deaths due to diarrhea remains unacceptably high. We aimed to describe diarrhea-associated mortality and evaluate risk factors for death among Mozambican children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD). Methods: Between December 2007 and November 2012, children under-five with MSD were enrolled in Manhiça district, as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter study (GEMS). Clinical, epidemiological, and socio-demographic characteristics were collected. Anthropometric measurements were performed and stool samples collected upon recruitment. A follow-up visit ~ 60 days post-enrolment was conducted and verbal autopsies performed in all death cases. Results: Of the 916 MSD-cases analyzed; 90% (821/916) completed 60 days follow-up and 69 patients died. The case fatality rate at follow-up was 8% (69/821), and the mortality rate 10.2 (95%CI: 7.75-13.59) deaths per 1000 persons-week at risk. Nearly half of the deaths 48% (33/69) among study participants clustered within 2 weeks of the onset of diarrhea. Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (typical EPEC) and Cryptosporidium were the two pathogens associated to an increased risk of death in the univariate analysis with (HR = 4.16, p = 0.0461) and (H = 2.84, p = 0.0001) respectively. Conversely, Rotavirus infection was associated to a decreased risk of death (HR = 0.52, p = 0.0198). According to the multivariate analysis, risk factors for death included co-morbidities such as malnutrition (HR = 4.13, p < 0.0001), pneumonia/lower respiratory infection (HR = 3.51, p < 0.0001) or invasive bacterial disease (IBD) (HR = 6.80, p = 0.0009), presenting on arrival with lethargy or overt unconsciousness (HR = 1.73, p = 0.0302) or wrinkled skin (HR = 1.71, p = 0.0393), and cryptosporidium infection (HR = 2.14, p = 0.0038). When restricting the analysis to those with available HIV results (n = 191, 22% of the total study sample), HIV was shown to be a significant risk factor for death (HR = 5.05, p = 0.0009). Verbal autopsies were conducted in 100% of study deaths, and highlighted diarrhea as the main underlying cause of death 39%, (27/69); followed by HIV/AIDS related deaths 29.0% (20/69) and sepsis 11.6% (8/69). Conclusion: Preventive strategies targeting Cryptosporidium, malnutrition and early identification and treatment of associated co-morbidities could contribute to the prevention of the majority of diarrhea associated deaths in Mozambican children. © 2019 The Author(s).
  • The incidence, aetiology, and adverse clinical consequences of less severe diarrhoeal episodes among infants and children residing in low-income and middle-income countries: a 12-month case-control study as a follow-on to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)

    Kotloff, K. (Elsevier Ltd., 2019-05-01)
    Background: Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) has described the incidence, aetiology, and sequelae of medically attended moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) among children aged 0–59 months residing in censused populations in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, where most child deaths occur. To further characterise this disease burden and guide interventions, we extended this study to include children with episodes of less-severe diarrhoea (LSD) seeking care at health centres serving six GEMS sites. Methods: We report a 1-year, multisite, age-stratified, matched case-control study following on to the GEMS study. Six sites (Bamako, Mali; Manhiça, Mozambique; Basse, The Gambia; Mirzapur, Bangladesh; Kolkata, India; and Bin Qasim Town, Karachi, Pakistan) participated in this study. Children aged 0–59 months at each site who sought care at a sentinel hospital or health centre during a 12-month period were screened for diarrhoea. New (onset after ≥7 diarrhoea-free days) and acute (onset within the previous 7 days) episodes of diarrhoea in children who had sunken eyes, whose skin lost turgor, who received intravenous hydration, who had dysentery, or who were hospitalised were eligible for inclusion as MSD. The remaining new and acute diarrhoea episodes among children who sought care at the same health centres were considered LSD. We aimed to enrol the first eight or nine eligible children with MSD and LSD at each site during each fortnight in three age strata: infants (aged 0–11 months), toddlers (aged 12–23 months), and young children (aged 24–59 months). For each included case of MSD or LSD, we enrolled one to three community control children without diarrhoea during the previous 7 days. From patients and controls we collected clinical and epidemiological data, anthropometric measurements, and faecal samples to identify enteropathogens at enrolment, and we performed a follow-up home visit about 60 days later to ascertain vital status, clinical outcome, and interval growth. Primary outcomes were to characterise, for MSD and LSD, the pathogen-specific attributable risk and population-based incidence values, and to assess the frequency of adverse clinical consequences associated with these two diarrhoeal syndromes. Findings: From Oct 31, 2011, to Nov 14, 2012, we recruited 2368 children with MSD, 3174 with LSD, and one to three randomly selected community control children without diarrhoea matched to cases with MSD (n=3597) or LSD (n=4236). Weighted adjusted population attributable fractions showed that most attributable cases of MSD and LSD were due to rotavirus, Cryptosporidium spp, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli encoding heat-stable toxin (with or without genes encoding heat-labile enterotoxin), and Shigella spp. The attributable incidence per 100 child-years for LSD versus MSD, by age stratum, for rotavirus was 22·3 versus 5·5 (0–11 months), 9·8 versus 2·9 (12–23 months), and 0·5 versus 0·2 (24–59 months); for Cryptosporidium spp was 3·6 versus 2·3 (0–11 months), 4·3 versus 0·6 (12–23 months), and 0·3 versus 0·1 (24–59 months); for enterotoxigenic E coli encoding heat-stable toxin was 4·2 versus 0·1 (0–11 months), 5·2 versus 0·0 (12–23 months), and 1·1 versus 0·2 (24–59 months); and for Shigella spp was 1·0 versus 1·3 (0–11 months), 3·1 versus 2·4 (12–23 months), and 0·8 versus 0·7 (24–59 months). Participants with both MSD and LSD had significantly more linear growth faltering than controls at follow-up. Interpretation: Inclusion of participants with LSD markedly expands the population of children who experience adverse clinical and nutritional outcomes from acute diarrhoeal diseases. Since MSD and LSD have similar aetiologies, interventions targeting rotavirus, Shigella spp, enterotoxigenic E coli producing heat-stable toxin, and Cryptosporidium spp might substantially reduce the diarrhoeal disease burden and its associated nutritional faltering. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2019 The Author(s).
  • The remarkable tenacity of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine

    Divala, T. (Lancet Publishing Group, 2019-05-01)
  • Ebola vaccination in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Wells, C. (2019-05-14)
    Following the April 2018 reemergence of Ebola in a rural region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the virus spread to an urban center by early May. Within 2 wk of the first case confirmation, a vaccination campaign was initiated in which 3,017 doses were administered to contacts of cases and frontline healthcare workers. To evaluate the spatial dynamics of Ebola transmission and quantify the impact of vaccination, we developed a geographically explicit model that incorporates high-resolution data on poverty and population density. We found that while Ebola risk was concentrated around sites initially reporting infections, longer-range dissemination also posed a risk to areas with high population density and poverty. We estimate that the vaccination program contracted the geographical area at risk for Ebola by up to 70.4% and reduced the level of risk within that region by up to 70.1%. The early implementation of vaccination was critical. A delay of even 1 wk would have reduced these effects to 33.3 and 44.8%, respectively. These results underscore the importance of the rapid deployment of Ebola vaccines during emerging outbreaks to containing transmission and preventing global spread. The spatiotemporal framework developed here provides a tool for identifying high-risk regions, in which surveillance can be intensified and preemptive control can be implemented during future outbreaks.
  • Introduction of new vaccines for immunization in pregnancy – Programmatic, regulatory, safety and ethical considerations

    Kochhar, S. (Elsevier Ltd., 2019-05-31)
    Immunizing pregnant women is a promising strategy to reduce infectious disease-related morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their infants. Important pre-requisites for the successful introduction of new vaccines for immunization in pregnancy include political commitment and adequate financial resources: trained, committed and sufficient numbers of healthcare workers to deliver the vaccines; close integration of immunization programs with antenatal care and Maternal and Child Health services; adequate access to antenatal care by pregnant women in the country (especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC)); and a high proportion of births occurring in health facilities (to ensure maternal and neonatal follow-up can be done). The framework needed to advance a vaccine program from product licensure to successful country-level implementation includes establishing and organizing evidence for anticipated vaccine program impact, developing supportive policies, and translating policies into local action. International and national coordination efforts, proactive planning from conception to implementation of the programs (including country-level policy making, planning, and implementation, regulatory guidance, pharmacovigilance)and country-specific and cultural factors must be taken into account during the vaccines introduction. © 2019 The Authors
  • Recommendations for performing, interpreting and reporting hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) experiments

    Wintrode, Patrick L.; Masson, Glenn R.; Burke, John E.
    Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a powerful biophysical technique being increasingly applied to a wide variety of problems. As the HDX-MS community continues to grow, adoption of best practices in data collection, analysis, presentation and interpretation will greatly enhance the accessibility of this technique to nonspecialists. Here we provide recommendations arising from community discussions emerging out of the first International Conference on Hydrogen-Exchange Mass Spectrometry (IC-HDX; 2017). It is meant to represent both a consensus viewpoint and an opportunity to stimulate further additions and refinements as the field advances.
  • Noncoding dsRNA induces retinoic acid synthesis to stimulate hair follicle regeneration via TLR3

    Kim, D. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-12-01)
    How developmental programs reactivate in regeneration is a fundamental question in biology. We addressed this question through the study of Wound Induced Hair follicle Neogenesis (WIHN), an adult organogenesis model where stem cells regenerate de novo hair follicles following deep wounding. The exact mechanism is uncertain. Here we show that self-noncoding dsRNA activates the anti-viral receptor toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) to induce intrinsic retinoic acid (RA) synthesis in a pattern that predicts new hair follicle formation after wounding in mice. Additionally, in humans, rejuvenation lasers induce gene expression signatures for dsRNA and RA, with measurable increases in intrinsic RA synthesis. These results demonstrate a potent stimulus for RA synthesis by non-coding dsRNA, relevant to their broad functions in development and immunity. © 2019, The Author(s).
  • Statins exacerbate glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia in a high sucrose fed rodent model

    Seshadri, S. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-12-01)
    Statins are first-line therapy drugs for cholesterol lowering. While they are highly effective at lowering cholesterol, they have propensity to induce hyperglycemia in patients. Only limited studies have been reported which studied the impact of statins on (a) whether they can worsen glucose tolerance in a high sucrose fed animal model and (b) if so, what could be the molecular mechanism. We designed studies using high sucrose fed animals to explore the above questions. The high sucrose fed animals were treated with atorvastatin and simvastatin, the two most prescribed statins. We examined the effects of statins on hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, fatty acid accumulation and insulin signaling. We found that chronic treatment with atorvastatin made the animals hyperglycemic and glucose intolerant in comparison with diet alone. Treatment with both statins lead to fatty acid accumulation and inhibition of insulin signaling in the muscle tissue at multiple points in the pathway. © 2019, The Author(s).
  • Genomic structure and diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia reveal recent parasite migration patterns

    Shetty, A. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-12-01)
    Estimates of Plasmodium falciparum migration may inform strategies for malaria elimination. Here we elucidate fine-scale parasite population structure and infer recent migration across Southeast Asia using identity-by-descent (IBD) approaches based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms called in 1722 samples from 54 districts. IBD estimates are consistent with isolation-by-distance. We observe greater sharing of larger IBD segments between artemisinin-resistant parasites versus sensitive parasites, which is consistent with the recent spread of drug resistance. Our IBD analyses reveal actionable patterns, including isolated parasite populations, which may be prioritized for malaria elimination, as well as asymmetrical migration identifying potential sources and sinks of migrating parasites. © 2019, The Author(s).

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