Background: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death and illness globally among children younger than 5 years. Mortality and short-term morbidity cause substantial burden of disease but probably underestimate the true effect of diarrhoea on population health. This underestimation is because diarrhoeal diseases can negatively affect early childhood growth, probably through enteric dysfunction and impaired uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients. We attempt to quantify the long-term sequelae associated with childhood growth impairment due to diarrhoea.
Methods: We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study framework and leveraged existing estimates of diarrhoea incidence, childhood undernutrition, and infectious disease burden to estimate the effect of diarrhoeal diseases on physical growth, including weight and height, and subsequent disease among children younger than 5 years. The burden of diarrhoea was measured in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), a composite metric of mortality and morbidity. We hypothesised that diarrhoea is negatively associated with three common markers of growth: weight-for-age, weight-for-height, and height-for-age Z-scores. On the basis of these undernutrition exposures, we applied a counterfactual approach to quantify the relative risk of infectious disease (subsequent diarrhoea, lower respiratory infection, and measles) and protein energy malnutrition morbidity and mortality per day of diarrhoea and quantified the burden of diarrhoeal disease due to these outcomes caused by undernutrition. Findings: Diarrhoea episodes are significantly associated with childhood growth faltering. We found that each day of diarrhoea was associated with height-for-age Z-score (–0·0033 [95% CI −0·0024 to −0·0041]; p=4·43 × 10−14), weight-for-age Z-score (–0·0077 [–0·0058 to −0·0097]; p=3·19 × 10−15), and weight-for-height Z-score (–0·0096 [–0·0067 to −0·0125]; p=7·78 × 10−11). After addition of the DALYs due to the long-term sequelae as a consequence of undernutrition, the burden of diarrhoeal diseases increased by 39·0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 33·0–46·6) and was responsible for 55 778 000 DALYs (95% UI 49 125 400–62 396 200) among children younger than 5 years in 2016. Among the 15 652 300 DALYs (95% UI 12 951 300–18 806 100) associated with undernutrition due to diarrhoeal episodes, more than 84·7% are due to increased risk of infectious disease, whereas the remaining 15·3% of long-term DALYs are due to increased prevalence of protein energy malnutrition. The burden of diarrhoea has decreased substantially since 1990, but progress has been greater in long-term (78·7% reduction [95% UI 69·3–85·5]) than in acute (70·4% reduction [95% UI 61·7–76·5]) DALYs. Interpretation:
Diarrhoea represents an even larger burden of disease than was estimated in the Global Burden of Disease Study. In order to adequately address the burden of its long-term sequelae, a renewed emphasis on controlling the risk of diarrhoea incidence may be required. This renewed effort can help further prevent the potential lifelong cost on child health, growth, and overall potential. Copyright 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license
Tachedjian, G.; O'Hanlon, D.E.; Ravel, J. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018)
In the cervicovaginal environment, the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by vaginal Lactobacillus spp. is often mentioned as a critical factor to the in vivo vaginal microbiota antimicrobial properties. We present several lines of evidence that support the implausibility of H2O2 as an "in vivo" contributor to the cervicovaginal milieu antimicrobial properties. An alternative explanation is proposed, supported by previous reports ascribing protective and antimicrobial properties to other factors produced by Lactobacillus spp. capable of generating H2O2. Under this proposal, lactic acid rather than H2O2 plays an important role in the antimicrobial properties of protective vaginal Lactobacillus spp. We hope this commentary will help future research focus on more plausible mechanisms by which vaginal Lactobacillus spp. exert their antimicrobial and beneficial properties, and which have in vivo and translational relevance. Copyright The Author(s). 2018.
Casaos, J.; Huq, S.; Lott, T. (Impact Journals LLC, 2018)
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly aggressive, malignant tumors and are the most common malignant brain tumor in children under 6 months of age. Currently, there is no standard treatment for AT/RT. Recent studies have reported potential anti-tumoral properties of ribavirin, a guanosine analog and anti-viral molecule approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of hepatitis C. We previously demonstrated that ribavirin inhibited glioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Based on these results and the fact that no pre-clinical model of ribavirin in AT/RT exists, we decided to investigate the effect of ribavirin on several human AT/RT cell lines (BT12, BT16, and BT37) both in vitro and in vivo. We provide evidence that ribavirin has a significant impact on AT/RT cell growth and increases cell cycle arrest and cell death, potentially through modulation of the eIF4E and/or EZH2 pathways. Interestingly, using scratch wound and transwell Boyden chamber assays, we observed that ribavirin also impairs AT/RT cell migration, invasion, and adhesion. Finally, we demonstrate that ribavirin significantly improves the survival of mice orthotopically implanted with BT12 cells. Our work establishes that ribavirin is effective against AT/RT by decreasing tumoral cell growth and dissemination and could represent a new therapeutic option for children with this deadly disease. Copyright Casaos et al.
Boehme, J.; Le Moan, N.; Kameny, R.J. (Public Library of Science, 2018)
The heart exhibits the highest basal oxygen (O2) consumption per tissue mass of any organ in the body and is uniquely dependent on aerobic metabolism to sustain contractile function. During acute hypoxic states, the body responds with a compensatory increase in cardiac output that further increases myocardial O2 demand, predisposing the heart to ischemic stress and myocardial dysfunction. Here, we test the utility of a novel engineered protein derived from the heme-based nitric oxide (NO)/oxygen (H-NOX) family of bacterial proteins as an O2 delivery biotherapeutic (Omniox-cardiovascular [OMX-CV]) for the hypoxic myocardium. Because of their unique binding characteristics, H-NOX-based variants effectively deliver O2 to hypoxic tissues, but not those at physiologic O2 tension. Additionally, H-NOX-based variants exhibit tunable binding that is specific for O2 with subphysiologic reactivity towards NO, circumventing a significant toxicity exhibited by hemoglobin (Hb)-based O2 carriers (HBOCs). Juvenile lambs were sedated, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented to measure cardiovascular parameters. Biventricular admittance catheters were inserted to perform pressure-volume (PV) analyses. Systemic hypoxia was induced by ventilation with 10% O2. Following 15 minutes of hypoxia, the lambs were treated with OMX-CV (200 mg/kg IV) or vehicle. Acute hypoxia induced significant increases in heart rate (HR), pulmonary blood flow (PBF), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (p < 0.05). At 1 hour, vehicle-treated lambs exhibited severe hypoxia and a significant decrease in biventricular contractile function. However, in OMX-CV-treated animals, myocardial oxygenation was improved without negatively impacting systemic or PVR, and both right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) contractile function were maintained at pre-hypoxic baseline levels. These data suggest that OMX-CV is a promising and safe O2 delivery biotherapeutic for the preservation of myocardial contractility in the setting of acute hypoxia.
Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in young children in Africa. We examined factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection in MSD cases enrolled at the rural western Kenya Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) site from 2008-2012.
At health facility enrollment, stool samples were tested for enteric pathogens and data on clinical, environmental, and behavioral characteristics collected. Each child’s health status was recorded at 60-day follow-up. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 1,778 children with MSD enrolled as cases in the GEMS-Kenya case-control study, 11% had Cryptosporidium detected in stool by enzyme immunoassay; in a genotyped subset, 81% were C. hominis. Among MSD cases, being an infant, having mucus in stool, and having prolonged/persistent duration diarrhea were associated with being Cryptosporidium-positive. Both boiling drinking water and using rainwater as the main drinking water source were protective factors for being Cryptosporidium-positive. At follow-up, Cryptosporidium-positive cases had increased odds of being stunted (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.06–2.57), underweight (aOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.34–3.22), or wasted (aOR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.21–3.43), and had significantly larger negative changes in height- and weight-for-age z-scores from enrollment.
Cryptosporidium contributes significantly to diarrheal illness in young children in western Kenya. Advances in point of care detection, prevention/control approaches, effective water treatment technologies, and clinical management options for children with cryptosporidiosis are needed. Copyright 2018, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/.
Milon, B.; Mitra, S.; Song, Y. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018)
Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most prevalent form of acquired hearing loss and affects about 40 million US adults. Among the suggested therapeutics tested in rodents, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been shown to be otoprotective from NIHL; however, these results were limited to male mice. Methods: Here we tested the effect of SAHA on the hearing of 10-week-old B6CBAF1/J mice of both sexes, which were exposed to 2 h of octave-band noise (101 dB SPL centered at 11.3 kHz). Hearing was assessed by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABR) at 8, 16, 24, and 32 kHz, 1 week before, as well as at 24 h and 15-21 days following exposure (baseline, compound threshold shift (CTS) and permanent threshold shift (PTS), respectively), followed by histologic analyses. Results: We found significant differences in the CTS and PTS of the control (vehicle injected) mice to noise, where females had a significantly smaller CTS at 16 and 24 kHz (p < 0.0001) and PTS at 16, 24, and 32 kHz (16 and 24 kHz p < 0.001, 32 kHz p < 0.01). This sexual dimorphic effect could not be explained by a differential loss of sensory cells or synapses but was reflected in the amplitude and amplitude progression of wave I of the ABR, which correlates with outer hair cell (OHC) function. Finally, the frequency of the protective effect of SAHA differed significantly between males (PTS, 24 kHz, p = 0.002) and females (PTS, 16 kHz, p = 0.003), and the magnitude of the protection was smaller in females than in males. Importantly, the magnitude of the protection by SAHA was smaller than the effect of sex as a biological factor in the vehicle-injected mice. Conclusions: These results indicate that female mice are significantly protected from NIHL in comparison to males and that therapeutics for NIHL may have a different effect in males and females. The data highlight the importance of analyzing NIHL experiments from males and females, separately. Finally, these data also raise the possibility of effectors in the estrogen signaling pathway as novel therapeutics for NIHL. Copyright 2018 The Author(s).
Hooven, T.A.; Catomeris, A.J.; Bonakdar, M. (American Society for Microbiology, 2018)
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) causes serious infections in neonates. We previously reported a transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) system for performing genomewide assessment of gene fitness in GBS. In order to identify molecular mechanisms required for GBS to transition from a mucosal commensal lifestyle to bloodstream invasion, we performed Tn-seq on GBS strain A909 with human whole blood. Our analysis identified 16 genes conditionally essential for GBS survival in blood, of which 75% were members of the capsular polysaccharide (cps) operon. Among the non-cps genes identified as conditionally essential was relA, which encodes an enzyme whose activity is central to the bacterial stringent response—a conserved adaptation to environmental stress. We used blood coincubation studies of targeted knockout strains to confirm the expected growth defects of GBS deficient in capsule or stringent response activation. Unexpectedly, we found that the relA knockout strains demonstrated decreased expression of β-hemolysin/cytolysin, an important cytotoxin implicated in facilitating GBS invasion. Furthermore, chemical activation of the stringent response with serine hydroxamate increased β-hemolysin/cytolysin expression. To establish a mechanism by which the stringent response leads to increased cytotoxicity, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) on two GBS strains grown under stringent response or control conditions. This revealed a conserved decrease in the expression of genes in the arginine deiminase pathway during stringent response activation. Through coincubation with supplemental arginine and the arginine antagonist canavanine, we show that arginine availability is a determinant of GBS cytotoxicity and that the pathway between stringent response activation and increased virulence is arginine dependent. Copyright 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Wagner, J.; Chelaru, F.; Kancherla, J. (Oxford University Press, 2018)
Large studies profiling microbial communities and their association with healthy or disease phenotypes are now commonplace. Processed data from many of these studies are publicly available but significant effort is required for users to effectively organize, explore and integrate it, limiting the utility of these rich data resources. Effective integrative and interactive visual and statistical tools to analyze many metagenomic samples can greatly increase the value of these data for researchers. We present Metaviz, a tool for interactive exploratory data analysis of annotated microbiome taxonomic community profiles derived from marker gene or whole metagenome shotgun sequencing. Metaviz is uniquely designed to address the challenge of browsing the hierarchical structure of metagenomic data features while rendering visualizations of data values that are dynamically updated in response to user navigation. We use Metaviz to provide the UMD Metagenome Browser web service, allowing users to browse and explore data for more than 7000 microbiomes from published studies. Users can also deploy Metaviz as a web service, or use it to analyze data through the metavizr package to interoperate with state-of-the-art analysis tools available through Bioconductor. Metaviz is free and open source with the code, documentation and tutorials publicly accessible. C The Author(s) 2018.
Cigarette smoking has been associated with both the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and a vaginal microbiota lacking protective Lactobacillus spp. As the mechanism linking smoking with vaginal microbiota and BV is unclear, we sought to compare the vaginal metabolomes of smokers and non-smokers (17 smokers/19 non-smokers). Metabolomic profiles were determined by gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in a cross-sectional study. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene populations revealed samples clustered into three community state types (CSTs) - - CST-I (L. crispatus-dominated), CST-III (L. iners-dominated) or CST-IV (low-Lactobacillus). We identified 607 metabolites, including 12 that differed significantly (q-value < 0.05) between smokers and non-smokers. Nicotine, and the breakdown metabolites cotinine and hydroxycotinine were substantially higher in smokers, as expected. Among women categorized to CST-IV, biogenic amines, including agmatine, cadaverine, putrescine, tryptamine and tyramine were substantially higher in smokers, while dipeptides were lower in smokers. These biogenic amines are known to affect the virulence of infective pathogens and contribute to vaginal malodor. Our data suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with differences in important vaginal metabolites, and women who smoke, and particularly women who are also depauperate for Lactobacillus spp., may have increased susceptibilities to urogenital infections and increased malodor. Copyright 2018 The Author(s).
Cho, M.K.; Moon, S.-H.; Song, T.J. (Editorial Office of Gut and Liver, 2018)
Background/Aims: Differentially diagnosing focal-type autoimmune pancreatitis (f-AIP) and pancreatic cancer (PC) is challenging. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound (CEH-EUS) may provide information for differentiating pancreatic masses. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of CEH-EUS in differentiating f-AIP from PC. Methods: Data were collected prospectively and analyzed on patients who underwent CEH-EUS between May 2014 and May 2015. Eighty consecutive patients were diagnosed with f-AIP or PC. PC and f-AIP were compared for enhancement intensity, contrast agent distribution, and internal vasculature. Results: The study group comprised 53 PC patients and 27 f-AIP patients (17 with type-1 AIP [15 definite and two probable], two with probable type-2 AIP, and eight with AIP, not otherwise specified). Hyper- to iso-enhancement in the arterial phase (f-AIP, 89% vs PC, 13%; p<0.05), homogeneous contrast agent distribution (f-AIP, 81% vs PC, 17%; p<0.05), and absent irregular internal vessels (f-AIP, 85% vs PC, 30%; p<0.05) were observed more frequently in the f-AIP group. The combination of CEH-EUS and enhancement intensity, absent irregular internal vessels improved the specificity (94%) in differentiating f-AIP from PC. Conclusions: CEH-EUS may be a useful noninvasive modality for differentially diagnosing f-AIP and PC. Combined CEH-EUS findings could improve the specificity of CEH-EUS in differentiating f-AIP from PC. Copyright 2018 Editorial Office of Gut and Liver. All rights reserved.
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