• Integrative Systems Praxis for Implementation Research (INSPIRE): An Implementation Methodology to Facilitate the Global Elimination of Cervical Cancer

      Gravitt, Patti E; Rositch, Anne F; Jurczuk, Magdalena; Meza, Graciela; Carillo, Lita; Jeronimo, Jose; Adsul, Prajakta; Nervi, Laura; Kosek, Margaret; Tracy, J Kathleen; et al. (American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2020-06-19)
      Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for a systems thinking approach to health systems strengthening to increase adoption of evidence-based interventions (EBI). The Integrative Systems Praxis for Implementation Research (INSPIRE) methodology operationalizes the WHO systems thinking framework to meet cervical cancer elimination–early detection and treatment (CC-EDT) goals. Methods: Using a systems thinking approach and grounded in the consolidated framework for implementation research, INSPIRE integrates multiple research methodologies and evaluation frameworks into a multilevel implementation strategy. Results: In phase I (creating a shared understanding), soft systems methodology and pathway analysis are used to create a shared visual understanding of the CC-EDT system, incorporating diverse stakeholder perspectives of the “what, how, and why” of system behavior. Phase II (finding leverage) facilitates active stakeholder engagement in knowledge transfer and decision-making using deliberative dialogues and multiple scenario analyses. Phase III (acting strategically) represents stakeholder-engaged implementation planning, using well-defined implementation strategies of education, training, and infrastructure development. In phase IV (learning and adapting), evaluation of key performance indicators via a reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance framework is reviewed by stakeholder teams, who continuously adapt implementation plans to improve system effectiveness. Conclusions: The INSPIRE methodology is a generalizable approach to context-adapted implementation of EBIs. Impact: Replacing static dissemination of implementation “roadmaps” with learning health systems through the integration of systems thinking and participatory action research, INSPIRE facilitates the development of scalable and sustainable implementation strategies adapted to local contexts.