• Epithelial and Neutrophil Interactions and Coordinated Response to in a Human Intestinal Enteroid-Neutrophil Coculture Model.

      Lemme-Dumit, Jose M; Doucet, Michele; Zachos, Nicholas C; Pasetti, Marcela F (American Society for Microbiology, 2022-06-02)
      Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are recruited to the gastrointestinal mucosa in response to inflammation, injury, and infection. Here, we report the development and the characterization of an ex vivo tissue coculture model consisting of human primary intestinal enteroid monolayers and PMN, and a mechanistic interrogation of PMN-epithelial cell interaction and response to Shigella, a primary cause of childhood dysentery. Cellular adaptation and tissue integration, barrier function, PMN phenotypic and functional attributes, and innate immune responses were examined. PMN within the enteroid monolayers acquired a distinct activated/migratory phenotype that was influenced by direct epithelial cell contact as well as by molecular signals. Seeded on the basal side of the intestinal monolayer, PMN were intercalated within the epithelial cells and moved paracellularly toward the apical side. Cocultured PMN also increased basal secretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8). Shigella added to the apical surface of the monolayers evoked additional PMN phenotypic adaptations, including increased expression of cell surface markers associated with chemotaxis and cell degranulation (CD47, CD66b, and CD88). Apical Shigella infection triggered rapid transmigration of PMN to the luminal side, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and bacterial phagocytosis and killing. Shigella infection modulated cytokine production in the coculture; apical monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and basolateral IL-8 production were downregulated, while basolateral IL-6 secretion was increased. We demonstrated, for the first time, PMN phenotypic adaptation and mobilization and coordinated epithelial cell-PMN innate response upon Shigella infection in the human intestinal environment. The enteroid monolayer-PMN coculture represents a technical innovation for mechanistic interrogation of gastrointestinal physiology, host-microbe interaction, innate immunity, and evaluation of preventive/therapeutic tools. IMPORTANCE Studies of mucosal immunity and microbial host cell interaction have traditionally relied on animal models and in vitro tissue culture using immortalized cancer cell lines, which yield nonphysiological and often unreliable results. Herein, we report the development and characterization of an ex vivo enteroid-PMN coculture consisting of normal human intestinal epithelium and a mechanistic interrogation of PMN and epithelial cell interaction and function in the context of Shigella infection. We demonstrated tissue-driven phenotypic and functional adaptation of PMN and a coordinated epithelial cell and PMN response to Shigella, a primary cause of dysentery in young children in the developing world.