• Antibiotic growth promoters virginiamycin and bacitracin methylene disalicylate alter the chicken intestinal metabolome [Retracted]

      Gadde, U.D.; Oh, S.; Lillehoj, H.S. (Nature Publishing Group, 2018)
      Although dietary antibiotic growth promoters have long been used to increase growth performance in commercial food animal production, the biochemical details associated with these effects remain poorly defined. A metabolomics approach was used to characterize and identify the biochemical compounds present in the intestine of broiler chickens fed a standard, unsupplemented diet or a diet supplemented with the antibiotic growth promoters, virginiamycin or bacitracin methylene disalicylate. Compared with unsupplemented controls, the levels of 218 biochemicals were altered (156 increased, 62 decreased) in chickens given the virginiamycin-supplemented diet, while 119 were altered (96 increased, 23 decreased) with the bacitracin-supplemented diet. When compared between antibiotic-supplemented groups, 79 chemicals were altered (43 increased, 36 decreased) in virginiamycin- vs. bacitracin-supplemented chickens. The changes in the levels of intestinal biochemicals provided a distinctive biochemical signature unique to each antibiotic-supplemented group. These biochemical signatures were characterized by increases in the levels of metabolites of amino acids (e.g. 5-hydroxylysine, 2-aminoadipate, 5-hydroxyindoleaceate, 7-hydroxyindole sulfate), fatty acids (e.g. oleate/vaccenate, eicosapentaenoate, 16-hydroxypalmitate, stearate), nucleosides (e.g. inosine, N6-methyladenosine), and vitamins (e.g. nicotinamide). These results provide the framework for future studies to identify natural chemical compounds to improve poultry growth performance without the use of in-feed antibiotics. Copyright 2018 The Author(s).