• Coupling of excitation to Ca2+ release is modulated by dysferlin

      Lukyanenko, V.; Muriel, J.M.; Bloch, R.J. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2017)
      Key points: Dysferlin, the protein missing in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and Miyoshi myopathy, concentrates in transverse tubules of skeletal muscle, where it stabilizes voltage-induced Ca2+ transients against loss after osmotic shock injury (OSI). Local expression of dysferlin in dysferlin-null myofibres increases transient amplitude to control levels and protects them from loss after OSI. Inhibitors of ryanodine receptors (RyR1) and L-type Ca2+ channels protect voltage-induced Ca2+ transients from loss; thus both proteins play a role in injury in dysferlin's absence. Effects of Ca2+-free medium and S107, which inhibits SR Ca2+ leak, suggest the SR as the primary source of Ca2+ responsible for the loss of the Ca2+ transient upon injury. Ca2+ waves were induced by OSI and suppressed by exogenous dysferlin. We conclude that dysferlin prevents injury-induced SR Ca2+ leak. Abstract: Dysferlin concentrates in the transverse tubules of skeletal muscle and stabilizes Ca2+ transients when muscle fibres are subjected to osmotic shock injury (OSI). We show here that voltage-induced Ca2+ transients elicited in dysferlin-null A/J myofibres were smaller than control A/WySnJ fibres. Regional expression of Venus-dysferlin chimeras in A/J fibres restored the full amplitude of the Ca2+ transients and protected against OSI. We also show that drugs that target ryanodine receptors (RyR1: dantrolene, tetracaine, S107) and L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs: nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem) prevented the decrease in Ca2+ transients in A/J fibres following OSI. Diltiazem specifically increased transients by ∼20% in uninjured A/J fibres, restoring them to control values. The fact that both RyR1s and LTCCs were involved in OSI-induced damage suggests that damage is mediated by increased Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through the RyR1. Congruent with this, injured A/J fibres produced Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ waves. S107 (a stabilizer of RyR1-FK506 binding protein coupling that reduces Ca2+ leak) or local expression of Venus-dysferlin prevented OSI-induced Ca2+ waves. Our data suggest that dysferlin modulates SR Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle, and that in its absence OSI causes increased RyR1-mediated Ca2+ leak from the SR into the cytoplasm. Copyright 2017 The Authors.
    • High Time Resolution Analysis of Voltage-Dependent and Voltage-Independent Calcium Sparks in Frog Skeletal Muscle Fibers

      Szappanos, H.C.; Vincze, J.; Bodnár, D.; Dienes, B.; Schneider, M.F.; Csernoch, L.; Szentesi, P. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020-12-15)
      In amphibian skeletal muscle calcium (Ca2+) sparks occur both as voltage-dependent and voltage-independent ligand-activated release events. However, whether their properties and their origin show similarities are still in debate. Elevated K+, constant Cl– content solutions were used to initiate small depolarizations of the resting membrane potential to activate dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR) and caffeine to open ryanodine receptors (RyR) on intact fibers. The properties of Ca2+ sparks observed under control conditions were compared to those measured on depolarized cells and those after caffeine treatment. Calcium sparks were recorded on intact frog skeletal muscle fibers using high time resolution confocal microscopy (x-y scan: 30 Hz). Sparks were elicited by 1 mmol/l caffeine or subthreshold depolarization to different membrane potentials. Both treatments increased the frequency of sparks and altered their morphology. Images were analyzed by custom-made computer programs. Both the amplitude (in ΔF/F0; 0.259 ± 0.001 vs. 0.164 ± 0.001; n = 24942 and 43326, respectively; mean ± SE, p < 0.001) and the full width at half maximum (FWHM, in μm; parallel with fiber axis: 2.34 ± 0.01 vs. 1.92 ± 0.01, p < 0.001; perpendicular to fiber axis: 2.08 ± 0.01 vs. 1.68 ± 0.01, p < 0.001) of sparks was significantly greater after caffeine treatment than on depolarized cells. 9.8% of the sparks detected on depolarized fibers and about one third of the caffeine activated sparks (29.7%) overlapped with another one on the previous frame on x-y scans. Centre of overlapping sparks travelled significantly longer distances between consecutive frames after caffeine treatment then after depolarization (in μm; 1.66 ± 0.01 vs. 0.95 ± 0.01, p < 0.001). Our results suggest that the two types of ryanodine receptors, the junctional RyRs controlled by DHPRs and the parajunctional RyRs are activated independently, using alternate ways, with the possibility of cooperation between neighboring release channels. Copyright Copyright Copyright 2020 Cserne Szappanos, Vincze, Bodnár, Dienes, Schneider, Csernoch and Szentesi.
    • Loss of S100A1 expression leads to Ca2+ release potentiation in mutant mice with disrupted CaM and S100A1 binding to CaMBD2 of RyR1

      Hernandez-Ochoa, E.O.; Melville, Z.; Vanegas, C. (American Physiological Society, 2018)
      Calmodulin (CaM) and S100A1 fine-tune skeletal muscle Ca2+ release via opposite modulation of the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). Binding to and modulation of RyR1 by CaM and S100A1 occurs predominantly at the region ranging from amino acid residue 3614-3640 of RyR1 (here referred to as CaMBD2). Using synthetic peptides, it has been shown that CaM binds to two additional regions within the RyR1, specifically residues 1975-1999 and 4295-4325 (CaMBD1 and CaMBD3, respectively). Because S100A1 typically binds to similar motifs as CaM, we hypothesized that S100A1 could also bind to CaMBD1 and CaMBD3. Our goals were: (1) to establish whether S100A1 binds to synthetic peptides containing CaMBD1 and CaMBD3 using isothermal calorimetry (ITC), and (2) to identify whether S100A1 and CaM modulate RyR1 Ca2+ release activation via sites other than CaMBD2 in RyR1 in its native cellular context. We developed the mouse model (RyR1D-S100A1KO), which expresses point mutation RyR1-L3625D (RyR1D) that disrupts the modulation of RyR1 by CaM and S100A1 at CaMBD2 and also lacks S100A1 (S100A1KO). ITC assays revealed that S100A1 binds with different affinities to CaMBD1 and CaMBD3. Using high-speed Ca2+ imaging and a model for Ca2+ binding and transport, we show that the RyR1D-S100A1KO muscle fibers exhibit a modest but significant increase in myoplasmic Ca2+ transients and enhanced Ca2+ release flux following field stimulation when compared to fibers from RyR1D mice, which were used as controls to eliminate any effect of binding at CaMBD2, but with preserved S100A1 expression. Our results suggest that S100A1, similar to CaM, binds to CaMBD1 and CaMBD3 within the RyR1, but that CaMBD2 appears to be the primary site of RyR1 regulation by CaM and S100A1. Copyright 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.