• Engineering of L-Plastin Peptide-Loaded Biodegradable Nanoparticles for Sustained Delivery and Suppression of Osteoclast Function in Vitro

      Majumdar, S.; Wadajkar, A.S.; Aljohani, H. (Hindawi Limited, 2019)
      We have recently demonstrated that a small molecular weight amino-terminal peptide of L-plastin (10 amino acids; “MARGSVSDEE”) suppressed the phosphorylation of endogenous L-plastin. Therefore, the formation of nascent sealing zones (NSZs) and bone resorption are reduced. The aim of this study was to develop a biodegradable and biocompatible PLGA nanocarrier that could be loaded with the L-plastin peptide of interest and determine the efficacy in vitro in osteoclast cultures. L-plastin MARGSVSDEE (P1) and scrambled control (P3) peptide-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (NP1 and NP3, respectively) were synthesized by double emulsion technique. The biological effect of nanoparticles on osteoclasts was evaluated by immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, rhodamine-phalloidin staining of actin filaments, and pit forming assays. Physical characterization of well-dispersed NP1 and NP3 demonstrated ~130-150 nm size, < 0.07 polydispersity index, ~-3 mV ζ-potential, and a sustained release of the peptide for three weeks. Biological characterization in osteoclast cultures demonstrated the following: NP1 significantly reduced (a) endogenous L-plastin phosphorylation; (b) formation of NSZs and sealing rings; (c) resorption. However, the assembly of podosomes which are critical for cell adhesion was not affected. L-plastin peptide-loaded PLGA-PEG nanocarriers have promising potential for the treatment of diseases associated with bone loss. Future studies will use this sustained release of peptide strategy to systematically suppress osteoclast bone resorption activity in vivo in mouse models demonstrating bone loss. Copyright 2019 Sunipa Majumdar et al.
    • L-Plastin deficiency produces increased trabecular bone due to attenuation of sealing ring formation and osteoclast dysfunction

      Chellaiah, M.A.; Moorer, M.C.; Majumdar, S.; Aljohani, H.; Stains, J.P. (Springer Nature, 2020)
      Bone resorption requires the formation of complex, actin-rich cytoskeletal structures. During the early phase of sealing ring formation by osteoclasts, L-plastin regulates actin-bundling to form the nascent sealing zones (NSZ). Here, we show that L-plastin knockout mice produce osteoclasts that are deficient in the formation of NSZs, are hyporesorptive, and make superficial resorption pits in vitro. Transduction of TAT-fused full-length L-plastin peptide into osteoclasts from L-plastin knockout mice rescued the formation of nascent sealing zones and sealing rings in a time-dependent manner. This response was not observed with mutated full-length L-plastin (Ser-5 and -7 to Ala-5 and -7) peptide. In contrast to the observed defect in the NSZ, L-plastin deficiency did not affect podosome formation or adhesion of osteoclasts in vitro or in vivo. Histomorphometry analyses in 8- and 12-week-old female L-plastin knockout mice demonstrated a decrease in eroded perimeters and an increase in trabecular bone density, without a change in bone formation by osteoblasts. This decrease in eroded perimeters supports that osteoclast function is attenuated in L-plastin knockouts. Micro-CT analyses confirmed a marked increase in trabecular bone mass. In conclusion, female L-plastin knockout mice had increased trabecular bone density due to impaired bone resorption by osteoclasts. L-plastin could be a potential target for therapeutic interventions to treat trabecular bone loss. Copyright 2020, The Author(s).
    • L-Plastin Phosphorylation: Possible Regulation by a TNFR1 Signaling Cascade in Osteoclasts

      Chellaiah, Meenakshi A (MDPI AG, 2021-09-15)
      Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) signaling regulates phosphorylation of L-plastin, which is involved in forming the nascent sealing zone, a precursor zone for the matured sealing ring. This study aimed to illustrate the molecular mechanisms of L-plastin phosphorylation and the subsequent formation of the nascent sealing zone in osteoclasts treated with TNF-α. Here, we report that anti-TNF-receptor 1, inhibitors of signaling proteins (Src, PI3-K, Rho, and Rho-kinase), and siRNA of TRAF-6 attenuated the phosphorylation of LPL and filamentous actin content significantly in the presence of TNF-α. An inhibitor of integrin αvβ3, PKC, or PKA did not inhibit TNF-α-induced L-plastin phosphorylation. Inhibitors of Src and PI3-K and not Rho or Rho-kinase reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of TRAF-6, suggesting that Src and PI3-K regulate TRAF-6 phosphorylation, and Rho and Rho-kinase are downstream of TRAF-6 regulation. Osteoclasts expressing constitutively active or kinase-defective Src proteins were used to determine the role of Src on L-plastin phosphorylation; similarly, the effect of Rho was confirmed by transducing TAT-fused constitutively active (V14) or dominant-negative (N19) Rho proteins into osteoclasts. Pull-down analysis with glutathione S-transferase-fused SH2 and SH3 domains of Src and PI3-K demonstrated coprecipitation of L-plastin and TRAF-6 with the SH3 and SH2 domains of the PI3-K and Src proteins. However, the actual order of the interaction of proteins requires further elucidation; a comprehensive screening should corroborate the initial findings of protein interactions via the SH2/SH3 domains. Ultimately, inhibition of the interaction of proteins with SH2/SH3 could reduce L-plastin phosphorylation and affect NSZ formation and bone resorption in conditions that display osteoclast activation and bone loss.