• Effects of applying amoxicillin in juvenile mice on enamel mineralization and the expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 4 and tight junction proteins in ameloblasts

      Gao, J.; Li, X.; Baras, B.H. (Spandidos Publications, 2020)
      Amoxicillin is a common pediatric drug. However, to the best of our knowledge, the role of amoxicillin in enamel hypomineralization has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of amoxicillin on enamel mineralization, the morphology of ameloblasts, as well as the expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4), and the tight junction proteins, claudin 1 (CLDN1), claudin 4 (CLDN4) and occludin (OCLN), in ameloblasts of juvenile mice. A total of 36 3-day-old Kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups. The mice were administered 0, 50 or 100 mg/kg amoxicillin by intragastric administration for 19 days. The surface morphology and calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and carbon contents of mandibular incisors and first molars were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Histological changes in the ameloblasts of mandibular incisors were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The KLK4, CLDN1, CLDN4 and OCLN expression levels of ameloblasts were observed by immunohistochemical staining. The incidence of white patches in the incisor was 100% in the 100 mg/kg amoxicillin-treated groups. A greater number of enamel defects were observed in the incisal/occlusal half of mandibular incisors/molars compared with in the cervical half in the amoxicillin-treated groups. Following phosphoric-acid treatment, the enamel rod and interrod were aligned in a disorderly manner in the amoxicillin-treated groups. Amoxicillin decreased the Ca/P ratio in the enamel of mandibular incisors and molars. More intercellular spaces among maturation ameloblasts were observed in the amoxicillin-treated groups. Amoxicillin decreased KLK4 and CLDN1, CLDN4 and OCLN expression in mature ameloblasts. The administration of amoxicillin in juvenile mice induced enamel hypomineralization, and the effects of amoxicillin on enamel hypomineralization may be mediated via multiple pathways.