• Disparities in potential years of life lost due to intimate partner violence: Data from 16 states for 2006-2015.

      Graham, Laurie M; Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Zimmer, Catherine; Macy, Rebecca J; Rizo, Cynthia F; Lanier, Paul; Martin, Sandra L (Public Library of Science, 2021-02-17)
      Background Intimate partner violence can lead to deaths of one or both partners and others (i.e., corollary victims). Prior studies do not enumerate the societal cost of intimate partner violencerelated fatalities, exclude corollary victims from most analyses, and do not describe groups who bear the highest societal costs from intimate partner violence. Objective We examine racial/ethnic and gender-based disparities in potential years of life lost (PYLL) among intimate partners and corollary victims of intimate partner violence-related mortality. Methods We used 16 US states’ 2006–2015 National Violent Death Reporting System data to estimate PYLL among intimate partners (n = 6,282) and corollary victims (n = 1,634) by victims’ race/ethnicity and sex. We describe fatalities by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and victim-suspect relationships and used hierarchical linear models to examine PYLL per death differences by victims’ sex and race/ethnicity. Results Nearly 290,000 years of potential life were lost by partner and corollary victims as a result of IPV in 16 states during the decade of study. Most partner victims were female (59%); most corollary victims were male (76%). Female intimate partners died 5.1 years earlier (95% CI: 4.4., 5.9) than males, and female corollary victims died 3.6 years (1.9, 5.5) earlier than males. Racial/ethnic minorities died nine or more years earlier than their White counterparts. White males had the lowest PYLL per death of all sex/race groups. Implications Intimate partner violence-related fatalities exact a high societal cost, and the burden of that cost is disproportionately high among racial/ethnic minorities. Future interventions targeting specific sex and race/ethnic groups might help reduce disparities in intimate partner violence burden.
    • Intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration as precursors to suicide

      Kafka, Julie M; Moracco, Kathryn Beth E; Taheri, Caroline; Young, Belinda-Rose; Graham, Laurie M; Macy, Rebecca J; Proescholdbell, Scott (2022-03-25)
      It remains unclear how often and under what circumstances intimate partner violence (IPV) precedes suicide. Available research on IPV and suicide focuses largely on homicide-suicide, which is a rare event (<2% of suicides). We focus instead on single suicides (i.e., suicides unconnected to other violent deaths), which are the most common type of fatal violence in the US. Unfortunately, information about IPV circumstances is often unavailable for suicides. To address this gap, we sought to identify the proportion of single suicides that were preceded by IPV in North Carolina (NC), to describe the prevalence of IPV victimization and perpetration as precursors to suicide, and to explore how IPV-related suicides differ from other suicides. We used data from the NC Violent Death Reporting System (2010–2017, n = 9682 single suicides) and hand-reviewed textual data for a subset of cases (n = 2440) to document IPV circumstances. We had robust inter-rater reliability (Kappa: 0.73) and identified n = 439 IPV-related suicides. Most were males who had perpetrated nonfatal IPV (n = 319, 72.7%) prior to dying by suicide. Our findings suggest that IPV was a precursor for at least 4.5% of single suicides. Next, we conducted logistic regression analyses by sex comparing IPV-related suicides to other suicides. For both men and women, IPV was more common when the person who died by suicide had recently disclosed suicidal intent, was younger, used a firearm, and was involved with the criminal legal system, even after controlling for covariates. We also found sex-specific correlates for IPV circumstances in suicide. Combined with homicide-suicide data (reported elsewhere), IPV is likely associated with 6.1% or more of suicides overall. Results suggest clear missed opportunities to intervene for this unique subpopulation, such as suicide screening and referral in IPV settings (e.g., batterer intervention programs, Family Justice Centers) that is tailored by sex.