• Agricultural freshwater pond supports diverse and dynamic bacterial and viral populations

      Chopyk, J.; Allard, S.; Nasko, D.J. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2018)
      Agricultural ponds have a great potential as a means of capture and storage of water for irrigation. However, pond topography (small size, shallow depth) leaves them susceptible to environmental, agricultural, and anthropogenic exposures that may influence microbial dynamics. Therefore, the aim of this project was to characterize the bacterial and viral communities of pond water in the Mid-Atlantic United States with a focus on the late season (October-December), where decreasing temperature and nutrient levels can affect the composition of microbial communities. Ten liters of freshwater from an agricultural pond were sampled monthly, and filtered sequentially through 1 and 0.2 μm filter membranes. Total DNA was then extracted from each filter, and the bacterial communities were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The remaining filtrate was chemically concentrated for viruses, DNA-extracted, and shotgun sequenced. Bacterial community profiling showed significant fluctuations over the sampling period, corresponding to changes in the condition of the pond freshwater (e.g., pH, nutrient load). In addition, there were significant differences in the alpha-diversity and core bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between water fractions filtered through different pore sizes. The viral fraction was dominated by tailed bacteriophage of the order Caudovirales, largely those of the Siphoviridae family. Moreover, while present, genes involved in virulence/antimicrobial resistance were not enriched within the viral fraction during the study period. Instead, the viral functional profile was dominated by phage associated proteins, as well as those related to nucleotide production. Overall, these data suggest that agricultural pond water harbors a diverse core of bacterial and bacteriophage species whose abundance and composition are influenced by environmental variables characteristic of pond topology and the late season. Copyright 2018 Chopyk, Allard, Nasko, Bui, Mongodin and Sapkota.
    • Antidepressant treatment with fluoxetine during pregnancy and lactation modulates the gut microbiome and metabolome in a rat model relevant to depression

      Bale, T.L.; Ramsteijn, A.S.; Jašarević, E. (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2020)
      Up to 10% of women use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants during pregnancy and postpartum. Recent evidence suggests that SSRIs are capable of altering the gut microbiota. However, the interaction between maternal depression and SSRI use on bacterial community composition and the availability of microbiota-derived metabolites during pregnancy and lactation is not clear. We studied this using a rat model relevant to depression, where adult females with a genetic vulnerability and stressed as pups show depressive-like behaviors. Throughout pregnancy and lactation, females received the SSRI fluoxetine or vehicle. High-resolution 16S ribosomal RNA marker gene sequencing and targeted metabolomic analysis were used to assess the fecal microbiome and metabolite availability, respectively. Not surprisingly, we found that pregnancy and lactation segregate in terms of fecal microbiome diversity and composition, accompanied by changes in metabolite availability. However, we also showed that fluoxetine treatment altered important features of this transition from pregnancy to lactation most clearly in previously stressed dams, with lower fecal amino acid concentrations. Amino acid concentrations, in turn, correlated negatively with the relative abundance of bacterial taxa such as Prevotella and Bacteroides. Our study demonstrates an important relationship between antidepressant use during the perinatal period and maternal fecal metabolite availability in a rat model relevant to depression, possibly through parallel changes in the gut microbiome. Since microbial metabolites contribute to homeostasis and development, insults to the maternal microbiome by SSRIs might have health consequences for mother and offspring. Copyright 2020 The Author(s).
    • Mentholation affects the cigarette microbiota by selecting for bacteria resistant to harsh environmental conditions and selecting against potential bacterial pathogens

      Chopyk, J.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Kulkarni, P. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2017)
      Background: There is a paucity of data regarding the microbial constituents of tobacco products and their impacts on public health. Moreover, there has been no comparative characterization performed on the bacterial microbiota associated with the addition of menthol, an additive that has been used by tobacco manufacturers for nearly a century. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted bacterial community profiling on tobacco from user- and custom-mentholated/non-mentholated cigarette pairs, as well as a commercially-mentholated product. Total genomic DNA was extracted using a multi-step enzymatic and mechanical lysis protocol followed by PCR amplification of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene from five cigarette products (18 cigarettes per product for a total of 90 samples): Camel Crush, user-mentholated Camel Crush, Camel Kings, custom-mentholated Camel Kings, and Newport Menthols. Sequencing was performed on the Illumina MiSeq platform and sequences were processed using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) software package. Results: In all products, Pseudomonas was the most abundant genera and included Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Pseudomonas putida, regardless of mentholation status. However, further comparative analysis of the five products revealed significant differences in the bacterial compositions across products. Bacterial community richness was higher among non-mentholated products compared to those that were mentholated, particularly those that were custom-mentholated. In addition, mentholation appeared to be correlated with a reduction in potential human bacterial pathogens and an increase in bacterial species resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conclusions: Taken together, these data provide preliminary evidence that the mentholation of commercially available cigarettes can impact the bacterial community of these products. Copyright The Author(s) 2017.
    • Molecular characterization of the human stomach microbiota in Gastric Cancer Patients

      Yu, G.; Torres, J.; Hu, N. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2017)
      Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico. The 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region was sequenced using MiSeq platform for taxonomic profiles. PICRUSt was used to predict functional profiles. Human Microbiome Project was used for comparison. We showed that Hp is the most abundant member of gastric microbiota in both Chinese and Mexican samples (51 and 24%, respectively), followed by oral-associated bacteria. Taxonomic (phylum-level) profiles of stomach microbiota resembled oral microbiota, especially when the Helicobacter reads were removed. The functional profiles of stomach microbiota, however, were distinct from those found in other body sites and had higher inter-subject dissimilarity. Gastric microbiota composition did not differ by Hp colonization status or stomach anatomic sites, but did differ between paired non-malignant and tumor tissues in either Chinese or Mexican samples. Our study showed that Hp is the dominant member of the non-malignant gastric tissue microbiota in many gastric cancer patients. Our results provide insights on the gastric microbiota composition and function in gastric cancer patients, which may have important clinical implications. Copyright 2017 Yu, Torres, Hu, Medrano-Guzman, Herrera-Goepfert, Humphrys, Wang, Wang, Ding, Ravel, Taylor, Abnet and Goldstein.