• Flt3-itd allelic burden and acute promyelocytic leukemia risk stratification

      Li, A.Y.; Kashanian, S.M.; Hambley, B.C.; Zacholski, K.; Duong, V.H.; Chaer, F.E.; Holtzman, N.G.; Gojo, I.; Webster, J.A.; Norsworthy, K.J.; et al. (MDPI AG, 2021-03-21)
      The significance of FLT3-ITD in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is not well-established. We performed a bi-center retrospective study of 138 APL patients, 59 (42.8%) of whom had FLT3-ITD. APL patients with FLT3-ITD had higher baseline white blood cell counts (WBCs) (p < 0.001), higher hemoglobin, (p = 0.03), higher aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.001), lower platelets (p = 0.004), lower fibrinogen (p = 0.003), and higher incidences of disseminated intravascular coagulation (p = 0.005), M3v variant morphology (p < 0.001), and the bcr3 isoform (p < 0.001). FLT3-ITD was associated with inferior post-consolidation complete remission (CR) (p = 0.02) and 5-year overall survival (OS) of 79.7%, compared to 94.4% for FLT3-WT (wild-type) (p = 0.02). FLT3-ITD was strongly associated with baseline WBCs ≥ 25 × 109/L (odds ratio (OR): 54.4; 95% CI: 10.4–286.1; p < 0.001). High FLT3-ITD allelic burdens correlated with high-risk (HR) Sanz scores and high WBCs, with every 1% increase in allelic burden corresponding to a 0.6 × 109/L increase in WBC. HR APL was associated with a 38.5% increase in allelic burden compared with low-risk (LR) APL (95% CI: 19.8–57.2; p < 0.001). Our results provide additional evidence that FLT3-ITD APL is a distinct subtype of APL that warrants further study to delineate potential differences in therapeutic approach. © 2021 by the authors.