• Hypoxia preconditioned bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells enhance myoblast fusion and skeletal muscle regeneration

      Archacka, Karolina; Grabowska, Iwona; Mierzejewski, Bartosz; Graffstein, Joanna; Górzyńska, Alicja; Krawczyk, Marta; Różycka, Anna M; Kalaszczyńska, Ilona; Muras, Gabriela; Stremińska, Władysława; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-08-09)
      Background: The skeletal muscle reconstruction occurs thanks to unipotent stem cells, i.e., satellite cells. The satellite cells remain quiescent and localized between myofiber sarcolemma and basal lamina. They are activated in response to muscle injury, proliferate, differentiate into myoblasts, and recreate myofibers. The stem and progenitor cells support skeletal muscle regeneration, which could be disturbed by extensive damage, sarcopenia, cachexia, or genetic diseases like dystrophy. Many lines of evidence showed that the level of oxygen regulates the course of cell proliferation and differentiation. Methods: In the present study, we analyzed hypoxia impact on human and pig bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) and mouse myoblast proliferation, differentiation, and fusion. Moreover, the influence of the transplantation of human bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions on skeletal muscle regeneration was studied. Results: We showed that bone marrow-derived MSCs increased VEGF expression and improved myogenesis under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Transplantation of hypoxia preconditioned bone marrow-derived MSCs into injured muscles resulted in the improved cell engraftment and formation of new vessels. Conclusions: We suggested that SDF-1 and VEGF secreted by hypoxia preconditioned bone marrow-derived MSCs played an essential role in cell engraftment and angiogenesis. Importantly, hypoxia preconditioned bone marrow-derived MSCs more efficiently engrafted injured muscles; however, they did not undergo myogenic differentiation.