• Comparative Reductions in Investigator-Reported and Adjudicated Ischemic Events in REDUCE-IT

      Gaba, Prakriti; Bhatt, Deepak L; Giugliano, Robert P; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Miller, Michael; Brinton, Eliot A; Jacobson, Terry A; Ketchum, Steven B; Juliano, Rebecca A; Jiao, Lixia; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2021-10-04)
      Background: REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial) randomized statin-treated patients with elevated triglycerides to icosapent ethyl (IPE) or placebo. There was a significant reduction in adjudicated events, including the primary endpoint (cardiovascular [CV] death, myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, coronary revascularization, unstable angina requiring hospitalization) and key secondary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke) with IPE. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of IPE on investigator-reported events. Methods: Potential endpoints were collected by blinded site investigators and subsequently adjudicated by a blinded Clinical Endpoint Committee (CEC) according to a prespecified charter. Investigator-reported events were compared with adjudicated events for concordance. Results: There was a high degree of concordance between investigator-reported and adjudicated endpoints. The simple Kappa statistic between CEC-adjudicated vs site-reported events for the primary endpoint was 0.89 and for the key secondary endpoint was 0.90. Based on investigator-reported events in 8,179 randomized patients, IPE significantly reduced the rate of the primary endpoint (19.1% vs 24.6%; HR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.67-0.81]; P < 0.0001) and the key secondary endpoint (10.5% vs 13.6%; HR: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.66-0.85]; P < 0.0001). Among adjudicated events, IPE similarly reduced the rate of the primary and key secondary endpoints. Conclusions: IPE led to consistent, significant reductions in CV events, including MI and coronary revascularization, as determined by independent, blinded CEC adjudication as well as by blinded investigator-reported assessment. These results highlight the robust evidence for the substantial CV benefits of IPE seen in REDUCE-IT and further raise the question of whether adjudication of CV outcome trial endpoints is routinely required in blinded, placebo-controlled trials. (Evaluation of the Effect of AMR101 on Cardiovascular Health and Mortality in Hypertriglyceridemic Patients With Cardiovascular Disease or at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: REDUCE-IT [Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA - Intervention Trial]; NCT01492361).
    • Prevention of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality With Icosapent Ethyl in Patients With Prior Myocardial Infarction.

      Gaba, Prakriti; Bhatt, Deepak L; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Miller, Michael; Brinton, Eliot A; Jacobson, Terry A; Ketchum, Steven B; Juliano, Rebecca A; Jiao, Lixia; Doyle, Ralph T; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-05-03)
      BACKGROUND: REDUCE-IT was a double-blind trial that randomized 8,179 statin-treated patients with controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and moderately elevated triglycerides to icosapent ethyl (IPE) or placebo. There was a significant reduction in the primary endpoint, including death from cardiovascular (CV) causes. The specific impact of IPE among patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) was unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to examine the benefit of IPE on ischemic events among patients with prior MI in REDUCE-IT. METHODS: We performed post hoc analyses of patients with prior MI. The primary endpoint was CV death, MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina. The key secondary endpoint was CV death, MI, or stroke. RESULTS: A total of 3,693 patients had a history of prior MI. The primary endpoint was reduced from 26.1% to 20.2% with IPE vs placebo; HR: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65-0.85; P = 0.00001). The key secondary endpoint was reduced from 18.0% to 13.3%; HR: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61-0.84; P = 0.00006). There was also a significant 35% relative risk reduction in total ischemic events (P = 0.0000001), a 34% reduction in MI (P = 0.00009), a 30% reduction in CV death (P = 0.01), and a 20% lower rate of all-cause mortality (P = 0.054), although there was a slight increase in atrial fibrillation. Sudden cardiac death and cardiac arrest were also significantly reduced by 40% and 56%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of prior MI in REDUCE-IT treated with IPE demonstrated large and significant relative and absolute risk reductions in ischemic events, including CV death. (A Study of AMR101 to Evaluate Its Ability to Reduce Cardiovascular Events in High Risk Patients With Hypertriglyceridemia and on Statin. The Primary Objective is to Evaluate the Effect of 4 g/Day AMR101 for Preventing the Occurrence of a First Major Cardiovascular Event. [REDUCE-IT]; NCT01492361).