Recent Submissions

  • Clinical Practice Guideline: Sudden Hearing Loss (Update)

    Chandrasekhar, S.S.; Tsai, Do, B.S.; Bontempo, L.J. (SAGE Publications Inc., 2019)
    Objective: Sudden hearing loss is a frightening symptom that often prompts an urgent or emergent visit to a health care provider. It is frequently but not universally accompanied by tinnitus and/or vertigo. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss affects 5 to 27 per 100,000 people annually, with about 66,000 new cases per year in the United States. This guideline update provides evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients who present with sudden hearing loss. It focuses on sudden sensorineural hearing loss in adult patients aged ?18 years and primarily on those with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Prompt recognition and management of sudden sensorineural hearing loss may improve hearing recovery and patient quality of life. The guideline update is intended for all clinicians who diagnose or manage adult patients who present with sudden hearing loss. Purpose: The purpose of this guideline update is to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations in evaluating patients with sudden hearing loss and sudden sensorineural hearing loss, with particular emphasis on managing idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The guideline update group recognized that patients enter the health care system with sudden hearing loss as a nonspecific primary complaint. Therefore, the initial recommendations of this guideline update address distinguishing sensorineural hearing loss from conductive hearing loss at the time of presentation with hearing loss. They also clarify the need to identify rare, nonidiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss to help separate those patients from those with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss, who are the target population for the therapeutic interventions that make up the bulk of the guideline update. By focusing on opportunities for quality improvement, this guideline should improve diagnostic accuracy, facilitate prompt intervention, decrease variations in management, reduce unnecessary tests and imaging procedures, and improve hearing and rehabilitative outcomes for affected patients. Methods: Consistent with the American Academy of Otolaryngology�Head and Neck Surgery Foundation�s �Clinical Practice Guideline Development Manual, Third Edition� (Rosenfeld et al. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;148[1]:S1-S55), the guideline update group was convened with representation from the disciplines of otolaryngology�head and neck surgery, otology, neurotology, family medicine, audiology, emergency medicine, neurology, radiology, advanced practice nursing, and consumer advocacy. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and the prior clinical practice guideline on sudden hearing loss was reviewed in detail. Key Action Statements (KASs) were updated with new literature, and evidence profiles were brought up to the current standard. Research needs identified in the original clinical practice guideline and data addressing them were reviewed. Current research needs were identified and delineated. Results: The guideline update group made strong recommendations for the following: (KAS 1) Clinicians should distinguish sensorineural hearing loss from conductive hearing loss when a patient first presents with sudden hearing loss.
  • Characterization of CD44 intracellular domain interaction with RUNX2 in PC3 human prostate cancer cells

    Senbanjo, L.T.; Aljohani, H.; Majumdar, S.; Chellaiah, M.A. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2019)
    Background: Expression of CD44 receptor is associated with the onset of several tumors. The intracellular domain of CD44 (CD44-ICD) has been implicated as a co-transcription factor for RUNX2 in the regulation of expression of MMP-9 in breast carcinoma cells. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated the role of CD44 in migration and invasion of PC3 prostate cells through activation of MMP-9. CD44 signaling regulates the phosphorylation and hence the localization of RUNX2 in the nucleus. The role of CD44-ICD has not been studied in prostate cancer cells. This study aimed to explore the role of CD44-ICD and RUNX2 in the regulation of expression of metastasis-related genes. Methods: PC3 and PC3 cells overexpressing RUNX2 protein were analyzed for RUNX2/CD44-ICD interaction by immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and Immunofluorescence analyses. Wound healing and tumorsphere formation analyses were also done in these cells. The real-time PCR analysis was used to detect the expression levels of different genes. Results: Expression of CD44 and RUNX2 was observed only in PC3 cells (androgen receptor positive) and not in LNCaP or PCa2b cells (androgen receptor negative). Therefore, CD44-ICD fragment (~ 15-16 kDa) was observed in PC3 cells. Moreover, localization of CD44-ICD was more in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm of PC3 cells. Inhibition of cleavage of CD44 with a γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT reduced the formation of CD44-ICD; however, accumulation of CD44-external truncation fragments (~ 20 and ~ 25 kDa) was detected. RUNX2 and CD44-ICD interact in the nucleus of PC3 cells, and this interaction was more in PC3 cells transfected with RUNX2 cDNA. Overexpression of RUNX2 augments the expression of metastasis-related genes (e.g., MMP-9 and osteopontin) which resulted in increased migration and tumorsphere formation. Conclusions: We have shown here a strong functional relationship between CD44-ICD and RUNX2 in PC3 cells. RUNX2 forms a complex with CD44-ICD as a co-transcriptional factor, and this complex formation not only activates the expression of metastasis-related genes but also contributes to migration and tumorsphere formation. Therefore, RUNX2 and CD44-ICD are potential targets for anti-cancer therapy, and attenuation of their interaction may validate the regulatory effects of these proteins on cancer migration and progression. Copyright 2019 The Author(s).
  • A Novel Dental Sealant Containing Dimethylaminohexadecyl Methacrylate Suppresses the Cariogenic Pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Balhaddad, A.A.; Weir, M.D.; Oates, T.W.; Xu, H.H.K.; Melo, M.A.S. (MDPI, 2019)
    Cariogenic oral biofilms are strongly linked to dental caries around dental sealants. Quaternary ammonium monomers copolymerized with dental resin systems have been increasingly explored for modulation of biofilm growth. Here, we investigated the effect of dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) on the cariogenic pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilms. DMAHDM at 5 mass% was incorporated into a parental formulation containing 20 mass% nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). S. mutans biofilms were grown on the formulations, and biofilm inhibition and virulence properties were assessed. The tolerances to acid stress and hydrogen peroxide stress were also evaluated. Our findings suggest that incorporating 5% DMAHDM into 20% NACP-containing sealants (1) imparts a detrimental biological effect on S. mutans by reducing colony-forming unit counts, metabolic activity and exopolysaccharide synthesis; and (2) reduces overall acid production and tolerance to oxygen stress, two major virulence factors of this microorganism. These results provide a perspective on the value of integrating bioactive restorative materials with traditional caries management approaches in clinical practice. Contact-killing strategies via dental materials aiming to prevent or at least reduce high numbers of cariogenic bacteria may be a promising approach to decrease caries in patients at high risk.
  • Crypt- and Mucosa-Associated Core Microbiotas in Humans and Their Alteration in Colon Cancer Patients

    Saffarian, A.; Ravel, J.; Pedron, T. (American Society for Microbiology, 2019)
    We have previously identified a crypt-specific core microbiota (CSCM) in the colons of healthy laboratory mice and related wild rodents. Here, we confirm that a CSCM also exists in the human colon and appears to be altered during colon cancer. The colonic microbiota is suggested to be involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Because the microbiota identified in fecal samples from CRC patients does not directly reflect the microbiota associated with tumor tissues themselves, we sought to characterize the bacterial communities from the crypts and associated adjacent mucosal surfaces of 58 patients (tumor and normal homologous tissue) and 9 controls with normal colonoscopy results. Here, we confirm that bacteria colonize human colonic crypts in both control and CRC tissues, and using laser-microdissected tissues and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we further show that right and left crypt- and mucosa-associated bacterial communities are significantly different. In addition to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and as with murine proximal colon crypts, environmental nonfermentative Proteobacteria are found in human colonic crypts. Fusobacterium and Bacteroides fragilis are more abundant in right-side tumors, whereas Parvimonas micra is more prevalent in left-side tumors. More precisely, Fusobacterium periodonticum is more abundant in crypts from cancerous samples in the right colon than in associated nontumoral samples from adjacent areas but not in left-side colonic samples. Future analysis of the interaction between these bacteria and the crypt epithelium, particularly intestinal stem cells, will allow deciphering of their possible oncogenic potential.IMPORTANCE Due to the huge number of bacteria constituting the human colon microbiota, alteration in the balance of its constitutive taxa (i.e., dysbiosis) is highly suspected of being involved in colorectal oncogenesis. Indeed, bacterial signatures in association with CRC have been described. These signatures may vary if bacteria are identified in feces or in association with tumor tissues. Here, we show that bacteria colonize human colonic crypts in tissues obtained from patients with CRC and with normal colonoscopy results. Aerobic nonfermentative Proteobacteria previously identified as constitutive of the crypt-specific core microbiota in murine colonic samples are similarly prevalent in human colonic crypts in combination with other anaerobic taxa. We also show that bacterial signatures characterizing the crypts of colonic tumors vary depending whether right-side or left-side tumors are analyzed. Copyright 2019 Saffarian et al.
  • Comment on "pP2A inhibition sensitizes cancer stem cells to ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors in BCR-ABL human leukemia"

    Perrotti, D.; Agarwal, A.; Lucas, C.M. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2019)
    LB100 does not sensitize CML stem cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Copyright 2019 The Authors.
  • Structural and Biological Investigations for a Series of N-5 Substituted Pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines as Potential Anti-Cancer Therapeutics

    Cawrse, B.M.; Lee, N.C.; Wilson, G.M. (MDPI AG, 2019)
    Pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines have been studied for many years as potential lead compounds for the development of antiproliferative agents. Much of the focus has been on modifications to the pyrimidine ring, with enzymatic recognition often modulated by C2 and C4 substituents. In contrast, this work focuses on the N5 of the pyrrole ring by means of a series of novel N5-substituted pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines. The compounds were screened against the NCI-60 Human Tumor Cell Line panel, and the results were analyzed using the COMPARE algorithm to elucidate potential mechanisms of action. COMPARE analysis returned strong correlation to known DNA alkylators and groove binders, corroborating the hypothesis that these pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines act as DNA or RNA alkylators. In addition, N5 substitution reduced the EC50 against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells by up to 7-fold, indicating that this position is of interest in the development of antiproliferative lead compounds based on the pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine scaffold. Copyright 2019 by the authors.
  • HIV and HCV augments inflammatory responses through increased TREM-1 expression and signaling in Kupffer and Myeloid cells

    Hyun, J.; McMahon, R.S.; Kottilil, S. (PLOS, 2019)
    Chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects an estimated 35 million and 75 million individuals worldwide, respectively. These viruses induce persistent inflammation which often drives the development or progression of organ-specific diseases and even cancer including Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we sought to examine inflammatory responses following HIV or HCV stimulation of macrophages or Kupffer cells (KCs), that may contribute to virus mediated inflammation and subsequent liver disease. KCs are liver-resident macrophages and reports have provided evidence that HIV can stimulate and infect them. In order to characterize HIV-intrinsic innate immune responses that may occur in the liver, we performed microarray analyses on KCs following HIV stimulation. Our data demonstrate that KCs upregulate several innate immune signaling pathways involved in inflammation, myeloid cell maturation, stellate cell activation, and Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 1 (TREM1) signaling. TREM1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of receptors and it is reported to be involved in systemic inflammatory responses due to its ability to amplify activation of host defense signaling pathways. Our data demonstrate that stimulation of KCs with HIV or HCV induces the upregulation of TREM1. Additionally, HIV viral proteins can upregulate expression of TREM1 mRNA through NF-?B signaling. Furthermore, activation of the TREM1 signaling pathway, with a targeted agonist, increased HIV or HCV-mediated inflammatory responses in macrophages due to enhanced activation of the ERK1/2 signaling cascade. Silencing TREM1 dampened inflammatory immune responses elicited by HIV or HCV stimulation. Finally, HIV and HCV infected patients exhibit higher expression and frequency of TREM1 and CD68 positive cells. Taken together, TREM1 induction by HIV contributes to chronic inflammation in the liver and targeting TREM1 signaling may be a therapeutic option to minimize HIV induced chronic inflammation.
  • Opioids and Infectious Diseases: A Converging Public Health Crisis

    Schwetz, T.A.; Calder, T.; Rosenthal, E.; Kattakuzhy, S.; Fauci, A.S. (Oxford University Press, 2019)
    A converging public health crisis is emerging because the opioid epidemic is fueling a surge in infectious diseases, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection with or without AIDS, the viral hepatitides, infective endocarditis, and skin and soft-tissue infections. An integrated strategy is needed to tailor preventive and therapeutic approaches toward infectious diseases in people who misuse and/or are addicted to opioids and to concurrently address the underlying predisposing factor for the infections - opioid use disorder. This commentary highlights the unique and complementary roles that the infectious diseases and substance use disorder communities can play in addressing this crisis of dual public health concerns. Copyright The Author(s) 2019.
  • Complex penetrating cervical wound

    Harfouche, M.; Scalea, T.M.; Feliciano, D.V. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2019)
  • Clinical Practice Guideline: Sudden Hearing Loss (Update) Executive Summary

    Chandrasekhar, S.S.; Tsai, Do, B.S.; Bontempo, L.J. (SAGE Publications Inc., 2019)
    Objective: Sudden hearing loss is a frightening symptom that often prompts an urgent or emergent visit to a health care provider. It is frequently, but not universally, accompanied by tinnitus and/or vertigo. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss affects 5 to 27 per 100,000 people annually, with about 66,000 new cases per year in the United States. This guideline update provides evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients who present with sudden hearing loss. It focuses on sudden sensorineural hearing loss in adult patients aged 18 and over and primarily on those with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Prompt recognition and management of sudden sensorineural hearing loss may improve hearing recovery and patient quality of life. The guideline update is intended for all clinicians who diagnose or manage adult patients who present with sudden hearing loss. Purpose: The purpose of this guideline update is to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations in evaluating patients with sudden hearing loss and sudden sensorineural hearing loss, with particular emphasis on managing idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The guideline update group recognized that patients enter the health care system with sudden hearing loss as a nonspecific primary complaint. Therefore, the initial recommendations of this guideline update address distinguishing sensorineural hearing loss from conductive hearing loss at the time of presentation with hearing loss. They also clarify the need to identify rare, nonidiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss to help separate those patients from those with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss, who are the target population for the therapeutic interventions that make up the bulk of the guideline update. By focusing on opportunities for quality improvement, this guideline should improve diagnostic accuracy, facilitate prompt intervention, decrease variations in management, reduce unnecessary tests and imaging procedures, and improve hearing and rehabilitative outcomes for affected patients. Methods: Consistent with the American Academy of Otolaryngology�Head and Neck Surgery Foundation�s Clinical Practice Guideline Development Manual, Third Edition, the guideline update group was convened with representation from the disciplines of otolaryngology�head and neck surgery, otology, neurotology, family medicine, audiology, emergency medicine, neurology, radiology, advanced practice nursing, and consumer advocacy. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and the prior clinical practice guideline on sudden hearing loss was reviewed in detail. Key action statements (KASs) were updated with new literature, and evidence profiles were brought up to the current standard. Research needs identified in the original clinical practice guideline and data addressing them were reviewed. Current research needs were identified and delineated. Results: The guideline update group made strong recommendations for the following: clinicians should distinguish sensorineural hearing loss from conductive hearing loss when a patient first presents with sudden hearing loss (KAS 1); clinicians should educate patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss about the natural history of the condition, the benefits and risks of medical interventions, and the limitations of existing evidence regarding efficacy (KAS 7); and clinicians should counsel patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who have residual hearing loss and/or tinnitus about the possible benefits of audiological rehabilitation and other supportive measures (KAS 13). These strong recommendations were modified from the initial clinical practice guideline for clarity and timing of intervention. The guideline update group made strong recommendation against the following: clinicians should not order routine computed tomography of the head in the initial evaluation of a patient with presumptive sudden sensorineural hearing loss (KAS 3); clinicians should not obtain routine laboratory tests in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (KAS 5); and clinicians should not routinely prescribe antivirals, thrombolytics, vasodilators, or vasoactive substances to patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (KAS 11). The guideline update group made recommendations for the following: clinicians should assess patients with presumptive sudden sensorineural hearing loss through history and physical examination for bilateral sudden hearing loss, recurrent episodes of sudden hearing loss, and/or focal neurologic findings (KAS 2); in patients with sudden hearing loss, clinicians should obtain, or refer to a clinician who can obtain, audiometry as soon as possible (within 14 days of symptom onset) to confirm the diagnosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (KAS 4); clinicians should evaluate patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss for retrocochlear pathology by obtaining a magnetic resonance imaging or auditory brainstem response (KAS 6); clinicians should offer, or refer to a clinician who can offer, intratympanic steroid therapy when patients have incomplete recovery from sudden sensorineural hearing loss 2 to 6 weeks after onset of symptoms (KAS 10); and clinicians should obtain follow-up audiometric evaluation for patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss at the conclusion of treatment and within 6 months of completion of treatment (KAS 12). These recommendations were clarified in terms of timing of intervention and audiometry, as well as method of retrocochlear workup. The guideline update group offered the following KASs as options: clinicians may offer corticosteroids as initial therapy to patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss within 2 weeks of symptom onset (KAS 8); clinicians may offer, or refer to a clinician who can offer, hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with steroid therapy within 2 weeks of onset of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (KAS 9a); and clinicians may offer, or refer to a clinician who can offer, hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with steroid therapy as salvage therapy within 1 month of onset of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (KAS 9b). Incorporation of new evidence profiles to include quality improvement opportunities, confidence in the evidence, and differences of opinion Included 10 clinical practice guidelines, 29 new systematic reviews, and 36 new randomized controlled trials Highlights the urgency of evaluation and initiation of treatment, if treatment is offered, by emphasizing the time from symptom occurrence Clarification of terminology by changing potentially unclear statements; use of the term sudden sensorineural hearing loss to mean idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss to emphasize that over 90% of sudden sensorineural hearing loss is idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and to avoid confusion in nomenclature for the reader Changes to the key action statements (KASs) from the original guideline: KAS 1: When a patient first presents with sudden hearing loss, conductive hearing loss should be distinguished from sensorineural. KAS 2: The utility of history and physical examination when assessing for modifying factors is emphasized. KAS 3: The word routine is added to clarify that this statement addresses a nontargeted head computed tomography scan that is often ordered in the emergency room setting for patients presenting with sudden hearing loss. It does not refer to targeted scans such as a temporal bone computed tomography scan to assess for temporal bone pathology. KAS 4: The importance of audiometric confirmation of hearing status as soon as possible and within 14 days of symptom onset is emphasized. KAS 5: New studies were added to confirm the lack of benefit of nontargeted laboratory testing in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. KAS 6: Audiometric follow-up is excluded as a reasonable workup for retrocochlear pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan if magnetic resonance imaging cannot be done, or, secondarily, auditory brainstem response evaluation are the modalities recommended. A time frame for such testing is not specified, nor is it specified which clinician should be ordering this workup; however, it is implied that it would be the general or subspecialty otolaryngologist. KAS 7: The importance of shared decision making is highlighted, and salient points are emphasized. KAS 8: The option for corticosteroid intervention within 2 weeks of symptom onset is emphasized. KAS 9: Changed to KAS 9a and 9b; hyperbaric oxygen therapy remains an option but only when combined with steroid therapy for either initial treatment (9a) or for salvage therapy (9b). The timing is within 2 weeks of onset for initial therapy and within 1 month of onset of sudden sensorineural hearing loss for salvage therapy. KAS 10: Intratympanic steroid therapy for salvage is recommended within 2 to 6 weeks following onset of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The time to treatment is defined and emphasized. KAS 11: Antioxidants were removed from the list of interventions that the clinical practice guideline recommends against using. KAS 12: Follow-up audiometry at conclusion of treatment and also within 6 months posttreatment is added. KAS 13: This statement on audiologic rehabilitation includes patients who have residual hearing loss and/or tinnitus who may benefit from treatment. Addition of an algorithm outlining KASs Enhanced emphasis on patient education and shared decision making with tools provided to assist in the same.
  • Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure family social capital

    Carrillo-Alvarez, E.; Villalonga-Olives, E.; Riera-Romani, J. (Elsevier Ltd, 2019)
    The development and psychometric validation of instruments to measure social capital remains a priority in the field. The aim of the current study was to develop a Questionnaire on Family Social Capital (FSCQ) for use in an adolescent population and to test its reliability and validity. We followed an exploratory, sequential mixed-methods approach consisting of four steps: (1)item selection based on a conceptual model; (2)expert judgment of the conceptual model; (3)cognitive validation through focus groups; (4)psychometric validation, through principal components analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to assess construct validity, using Cronbach alpha and ICC to test reliability, and testing rural-urban differences to evaluate discriminant validity. A total of 429 3r and 4th ESO students participated in the study. The resulting 26-item FSCQ demonstrated a second-order model with two dimensions and seven first-order factors. The model showed good internal consistency and reliability, as indicated by the Chi-squared value(χ = 155.834; p = 0.91) and CFI(0.936). Discriminant validity tests showed significantly higher scores for the structural FSC and the total FSC scores for the rural group. We conclude that the instrument is an adequate tool to study family social capital in adolescents. Copyright 2019 The Authors
  • Ethical considerations in conducting surgical research in severe complicated intra-abdominal sepsis

    Doig, C.J.; Page, S.A.; Diaz, J.J. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2019)
    Background: Severe complicated intra-abdominal sepsis (SCIAS) has high mortality, thought due in part to progressive bio-mediator generation, systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure. Treatment includes early antibiotics and operative source control. At surgery, open abdomen management with negative-peritoneal-pressure therapy (NPPT) has been hypothesized to mitigate MOF and death, although clinical equipoise for this operative approach exists. The Closed or Open after Laparotomy (COOL) study (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03163095) will prospectively randomize eligible patients intra-operatively to formal abdominal closure or OA with NPTT. We review the ethical basis for conducting research in SCIAS. Main body: Research in critically ill incapacitated patients is important to advance care. Conducting research among SCIAS is complicated due to the severity of illness including delirium, need for emergent interventions, diagnostic criteria confirmed only at laparotomy, and obtundation from anaesthesia. In other circumstances involving critically ill patients, clinical experts have worked closely with ethicists to apply principles that balance the rights of patients whilst simultaneously permitting inclusion in research. In Canada, the Tri-Council Policy Statement-2 (TCPS-2) describes six criteria that permit study enrollment and randomization in such situations: (a) serious threat to the prospective participant requires immediate intervention; (b) either no standard efficacious care exists or the research offers realistic possibility of direct benefit; (c) risks are not greater than that involved in standard care or are clearly justified by prospect for direct benefits; (d) prospective participant is unconscious or lacks capacity to understand the complexities of the research; (e) third-party authorization cannot be secured in sufficient time; and (f) no relevant prior directives are known to exist that preclude participation. TCPS-2 criteria are in principle not dissimilar to other (inter)national criteria. The COOL study will use waiver of consent to initiate enrollment and randomization, followed by surrogate or proxy consent, and finally delayed informed consent in subjects that survive and regain capacity. Conclusions: A delayed consent mechanism is a practical and ethical solution to challenges in research in SCIAS. The ultimate goal of consent is to balance respect for patient participants and to permit participation in new trials with a reasonable opportunity for improved outcome and minimal risk of harm. Copyright 2019 The Author(s).
  • Association of Glucose Concentrations at Hospital Discharge With Readmissions and Mortality: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    Spanakis, E.K.; Umpierrez, G.E.; Siddiqui, T.; Zhan, M.; Snitker, S.; Fink, J.C.; Sorkin, J.D. (Oxford Academic, 2019)
    CONTEXT: Low blood glucose concentrations during the discharge day may affect 30-day readmission and posthospital discharge mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with diabetes and low glucose values during the last day of hospitalization are at increased risk of readmission or mortality. DESIGN AND OUTCOMES: Minimum point of care glucose values were collected during the last 24 hours of hospitalization. We used adjusted rates of 30-day readmission rate, 30-, 90-, and 180-day mortality rates, and combined 30-day readmission/mortality rate to identify minimum glucose thresholds above which patients can be safely discharged. PATIENTS AND SETTING: Nationwide cohort study including 843,978 admissions of patients with diabetes at the Veteran Affairs hospitals 14 years. RESULTS: The rate ratios (RRs) increased progressively for all five outcomes as the minimum glucose concentrations progressively decreased below the 90 to 99 mg/dL category, compared with the 100 to 109 mg/dL category: 30-day readmission RR, 1.01 to 1.45; 30-day readmission/mortality RR, 1.01 to 1.71; 30-day mortality RR, 0.99 to 5.82; 90-day mortality RR, 1.01 to 2.40; 180-day mortality RR, 1.03 to 1.91. Patients with diabetes experienced greater 30-day readmission rates, 30-, 90- and 180-day postdischarge mortality rates, and higher combined 30-day readmission/mortality rates, with glucose levels <92.9 mg/dL, <45.2 mg/dL, 65.8 mg/dL, 67.3 mg/dL, and <87.2 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetes who had hypoglycemia or near-normal glucose values during the last day of hospitalization had higher rates of 30-day readmission and postdischarge mortality.
  • Microcirculatory Coherence in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Deitchman, A.R.; McCurdy, M.T.; Fargaly, H.; Gilani, M.; Sorensen, E.N.; Mazzeffi, M.A. (W.B. Saunders, 2019)
  • Annual review of selected scientific literature: A report of the Committee on Scientific Investigation of the American Academy of Restorative Dentistry

    Cagna, D.R.; Murphy, K.R.; Troeltzsch, M. (Mosby Inc., 2019)
    This comprehensive review of the 2018 dental literature is provided to inform busy dentists about progress in the profession. Developed by the Committee on Scientific Investigation of the American Academy of Restorative Dentistry, each author brings discipline-specific expertise to one of the 8 sections of the report including (1) prosthodontics; (2) periodontics, alveolar bone, and peri-implant tissues; (3) implant dentistry; (4) dental materials and therapeutics; (5) occlusion and temporomandibular disorders; (6) sleep-related breathing disorders; (7) oral medicine and oral and maxillofacial surgery; and (8) dental caries and cariology. The report targets important information that will likely influence day-to-day treatment decisions. Each review is not intended to stand alone but to update interested readers so that they may visit source materials if greater detail is desired. As the profession continues its march toward evidence-based clinical decision-making, an already voluminous library of potentially valuable dental literature continues to grow. It is the intention of this review and its authors to provide assistance in navigating the extensive dental literature published in 2018. It is our hope that readers find this work useful in the clinical management of patients moving forward. Copyright 2019 The Authors
  • Pregnancy level of estradiol attenuated virus-specific humoral immune response in H5N1-infected female mice despite inducing anti-inflammatory protection

    Finch, C.L.; Pasetti, M.F.; Xie, H. (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2019)
    Estradiol, a major female steroid produced during pregnancy, has been reported to protect ovariectomized animals against H1N1 influenza infections via its anti-inflammatory effects. However, it remains unclear why pregnant women with high gestational estradiol levels are highly susceptible to influenza infections. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of pregnancy level of estradiol on female immunity against H5N1 infection in Balb/c mice. A sex-dependent susceptibility to H5N1 infection (higher morbidity and higher mortality) was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant female mice as compared to male mice. Subcutaneous implantation of estradiol pellets increased serum estradiol concentrations of non-pregnant female mice to the pregnancy level. These mice were protected from H5N1 infection through downregulation of pulmonary pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the production of virus-specific antibodies after infection was significantly delayed in estradiol-implanted mice when compared to placebos. Virus-specific IgG-secreting and IL-4-secreting cells were also reduced in estradiol-implanted mice. Similarly, lower antibody titers to seasonal vaccine antigens were found in pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant females without hormone usage. Our results indicate that estradiol levels equivalent to those found during pregnancy have divergent effects on female immunity against influenza, highlighting the importance of vaccination during pregnancy to prevent severe influenza infections. Copyright 2019 The Author(s).
  • Implementation of and early outcomes from anal cancer screening at a community-engaged health care facility providing care to Nigerian men who have sex with men

    Nowak, R.G.; Bentzen, S.M.; Blattner, W.A.; Charurat; M.E.; Cullen, K.J. (American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2019)
    PURPOSE Anal cancer risk is substantially higher among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) as compared with other reproductive-age adults, but screening is rare across sub-Saharan Africa. We report the use of high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) as a first-line screening tool and the resulting early outcomes among MSM in Abuja, Nigeria. METHODS From August 2016 to August 2017, 424 MSM enrolled in an anal cancer screening substudy of TRUST/RV368, a combined HIV prevention and treatment cohort. HRA-directed biopsies were diagnosed by histology, and ablative treatment was offered for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). HRA proficiency was assessed by evaluating the detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) over time and the proportion biopsied. Prevalence estimates of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and HSIL with 95% CIs were calculated. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify those at the highest risk of SIL. RESULTS Median age was 25 years (interquartile range [IQR], 22-29), median time since sexual debut was 8 years (IQR, 4-12), and 59% (95% CI, 54.2% to 63.6%) were HIV infected. Rate of detection of any SIL stabilized after 200 screenings, and less than 20% had two or more biopsies. Preliminary prevalence estimates of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and HSIL were 50.0% (95% CI, 44.7% to 55.3%) and 6.3% (95% CI, 4.0% to 9.3%). HIV infection, at least 8 years since anal coital debut, concurrency, and external warts were independently statistically associated with SIL. CONCLUSION Proficiency with HRA increased with experience over time. However, HSIL detection rates were low, potentially affected by obstructed views from internal warts and low biopsy rates, highlighting the need for ongoing evaluation and mentoring to validate this finding. HRA is a feasible first-line screening tool at an MSM-friendly health care facility. Years since anal coital debut and external warts could prioritize screening.
  • Randomized Placebo-/Sham-Controlled Trials of Spinal Cord Stimulation: A Systematic Review and Methodological Appraisal

    Duarte, R.V.; McNicol, E.; Colloca, L. (Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2019)
    Objectives: The recent availability of paraesthesia/sensation free spinal cord stimulation (SCS) modalities allow the design of clinical trials of SCS using placebo/sham controls and blinding of patients, clinicians, and researchers. The aims of this study were to: 1) systematically review the current evidence base of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of SCS placebo/sham trials and 2) to undertake a methodological critique of their methods. Based on this critique, we developed a checklist for the design and reporting of future RCTs of SCS. Materials and Methods: Electronic data bases were searched from inception until January 2019 for RCTs of SCS using a placebo/sham control. RCTs with only an active comparator arm were excluded. The results are presented as a narrative synthesis. Results: Searches identified 12 eligible RCTs. SCS modalities included paraesthesia stimulation, subthreshold, burst, and high-frequency SCS and were mainly conducted in patients with failed back surgery syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, and refractory angina. The quality and transparency of reporting of the methods of placebo stimulation, blinding of patients, clinicians, and researchers varied markedly across studies. Conclusions: To date the methods of placebo/sham control and blinding in RCTs have been poorly reported, leading to concerns about the validity and replicability of the findings. Important aspects that need to be clearly reported in the design of placebo-/sham-controlled RCTs of SCS include the transparent reporting of stimulation programming parameters, patient position during perception threshold measurement, management of the patient handheld programmer, frequency of recharging, and assessment of the fidelity of blinding. Copyright 2019 The Authors.
  • New insights into the role of iron in inflammation and atherosclerosis

    Cornelissen, A.; Guo, L.; Finn, A.V. (Elsevier B.V., 2019)
    Iron is fundamental for life-essential processes. However, it can also cause oxidative damage, which is thought to trigger numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases. The role of iron in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still not completely understood. Macrophages are both key players in the handling of iron throughout the body and in the onset, progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Iron itself might impact atherosclerosis through its effects on macrophages. However, while targeting iron metabolism within macrophages may have some beneficial effects on preventing atherosclerotic plaque progression there may also be negative consequences. Thus, the prevailing view of iron being capable of accelerating the progression of coronary disease through lipid peroxidation may not fully take into account the multi-faceted role of iron in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of iron metabolism in the context of the complex interplay between iron, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.
  • Networks of face-to-face social contacts in Niakhar, Senegal

    Potter, G.E.; Wong, J.; Neuzil, K. (Public Library of Science, 2019)
    We present the first analysis of face-to-face contact network data from Niakhar, Senegal. Participants in a cluster-randomized influenza vaccine trial were interviewed about their contact patterns when they reported symptoms during their weekly household surveillance visit. We employ a negative binomial model to estimate effects of covariates on contact degree. We estimate the mean contact degree for asymptomatic Niakhar residents to be 16.5 (95% C.I. 14.3, 18.7) in the morning and 14.8 in the afternoon (95% C.I. 12.7, 16.9). We estimate that symptomatic people make 10% fewer contacts than asymptomatic people (95% C.I. 5%, 16%; p = 0.006), and those aged 0-5 make 33% fewer contacts than adults (95% C.I. 29%, 37%; p < 0.001). By explicitly modelling the partial rounding pattern observed in our data, we make inference for both the underlying (true) distribution of contacts as well as for the reported distribution. We created an estimator for homophily by compound (household) membership and estimate that 48% of contacts by symptomatic people are made to their own compound members in the morning (95% CI, 45%, 52%) and 60% in the afternoon/ evening (95% CI, 56%, 64%). We did not find a significant effect of symptom status on compound homophily. We compare our findings to those from other countries and make design recommendations for future surveys. Copyright 2019 Potter et al.

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