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Other TitlesMalawi Project 2010-2013
From Multidisciplinary to Transdisciplinary Collaboration in Global Health: A Case Study of the University of Maryland Global Health Interprofessional Council’s Malawi Project (2013)
Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment (2012)
Global Health Inter-Professional Council Summer Interdisciplinary Student Project-Malawi 2011
A Needs Assessment of Orphans & Vulnerable Children (OVCs) in Salima District, Malawi (2010)
DescriptionThe Global Health Interprofessional Council (GHIC) at the University of Maryland Baltimore sponsored students from the seven professional schools on the campus to do studies or provide health related services in Malawi. Included are literature or slide presentations for projects spanning several years since 2010.
University of Maryland, Baltimore
Interdisciplinary approach in education
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/8469
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Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium Malawi: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Trial of the Clinical Efficacy of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Among Children in Blantyre, MalawiMeiring, J.E.; Laurens, M.B.; Patel, P. (Oxford University Press, 2019)BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is an acute infection characterized by prolonged fever following the ingestion and subsequent invasion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), a human-restricted pathogen. The incidence of typhoid fever has been most reported in children 5-15 years of age, but is increasingly recognized in children younger than 5 years old. There has been a recent expansion of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever globally. Prior typhoid vaccines were not suitable for use in the youngest children in countries with a high burden of disease. This study aims to determine the efficacy of a typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) that was recently prequalified by the World Health Organization, by testing it in children 9 months through 12 years of age in Blantyre, Malawi. METHODS: In this Phase III, individually randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of the clinical efficacy of TCV, 28 000 children 9 months through 12 years of age will be enrolled and randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either Vi-TCV or a meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine. A subset of 600 of these children will be further enrolled in an immunogenicity and reactogenicity sub-study to evaluate the safety profile and immune response elicited by Vi-TCV. Recruiting began in February 2018. RESULTS: All children will be under passive surveillance for at least 2 years to determine the primary outcome, which is blood culture-confirmed S. Typhi illness. Children enrolled in the immunogenicity and reactogenicity sub-study will have blood drawn before vaccination and at 2 timepoints after vaccination to measure their immune response to vaccination. They will also be followed actively for adverse events and serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of a single-dose, efficacious typhoid vaccine into countries with high burden of disease or significant antimicrobial resistance could have a dramatic impact, protecting children from infection and reducing antimicrobial usage and associated health inequity in the world's poorest places. This trial, the first of a TCV in Africa, seeks to demonstrate the impact and programmatic use of TCVs within an endemic setting. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT03299426. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
School-age Children Are a Reservoir of Malaria Infection in MalawiWalldorf, Jenny Anne; Laufer, Miriam K. (2015)Background: Malaria surveillance and interventions in endemic countries often target young children at highest risk of malaria morbidity and mortality. School-age children and adults not captured in surveillance may contribute to malaria transmission. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in one rainy and one dry season in southern Malawi. Demographic and health information was collected for all household members. Blood samples were obtained from individuals aged greater than six months for microscopic and PCR identification of Plasmodium falciparum. Results: Specimens were collected from 5,796 individuals. PCR prevalence of malaria infection was 5%, 10%, and 20% in dry, and 9%, 15%, and 32% in rainy seasons in Blantyre, Thyolo, and Chikhwawa, respectively. Over 88% of those infected were asymptomatic. Participants aged 6-15 years were at higher risk of infection (OR = 4.8; 95% CI, 4.0-5.8) and asymptomatic infection (OR = 4.2; 95% CI, 2.7-6.6) than younger children in all settings. School-age children used bednets less frequently than other age groups. Compared to young children, school-age children were brought less often for treatment and more often to unreliable treatment sources. Conclusions: School-age children represent an underappreciated reservoir of malaria infection and have limited exposure to antimalarial interventions. Malaria control and elimination strategies may need to expand to include this age group.
Community factors affecting participation in larval source management for malaria control in Chikwawa District, Southern MalawiGowelo, S.; McCann, R.S.; Koenraadt, C.J.M. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2020)Background: To further reduce malaria, larval source management (LSM) is proposed as a complementary strategy to the existing strategies. LSM has potential to control insecticide resistant, outdoor biting and outdoor resting vectors. Concerns about costs and operational feasibility of implementation of LSM at large scale are among the reasons the strategy is not utilized in many African countries. Involving communities in LSM could increase intervention coverage, reduce costs of implementation and improve sustainability of operations. Community acceptance and participation in community-led LSM depends on a number of factors. These factors were explored under the Majete Malaria Project in Chikwawa district, southern Malawi. Methods: Separate focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with members from the general community (n = 3); health animators (HAs) (n = 3); and LSM committee members (n = 3). In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with community members. Framework analysis was employed to determine the factors contributing to community acceptance and participation in the locally-driven intervention. Results: Nine FGDs and 24 IDIs were held, involving 87 members of the community. Widespread knowledge of malaria as a health problem, its mode of transmission, mosquito larval habitats and mosquito control was recorded. High awareness of an association between creation of larval habitats and malaria transmission was reported. Perception of LSM as a tool for malaria control was high. The use of a microbial larvicide as a form of LSM was perceived as both safe and effective. However, actual participation in LSM by the different interviewee groups varied. Labour-intensiveness and time requirements of the LSM activities, lack of financial incentives, and concern about health risks when wading in water bodies contributed to lower participation. Conclusion: Community involvement in LSM increased local awareness of malaria as a health problem, its risk factors and control strategies. However, community participation varied among the respondent groups, with labour and time demands of the activities, and lack of incentives, contributing to reduced participation. Innovative tools that can reduce the labour and time demands could improve community participation in the activities. Further studies are required to investigate the forms and modes of delivery of incentives in operational community-driven LSM interventions. Copyright 2020 The Author(s).