Factors Related to Job Performance and Job Satisfaction in Certified Nursing Assistants
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AbstractBackground: Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) are responsible for assisting long-term care (LTC) residents in activities of daily living (ADLs) such as bathing, dressing, mobility, and feeding. When CNAs provide too much ADL assistance, functional decline and disability often result. LTC facilities are mandated to provide quality care that enables residents to maintain their highest level of physical well-being (OBRA, 1987). However, poor CNA job performance and job satisfaction are common obstacles in the LTC industry, influencing the quality of care and care outcomes of LTC residents. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of factors related to CNA job performance and job satisfaction using path analysis procedures. The Core Self-Evaluations (CSE) model and Social Cognitive Theory served as the theoretical framework for the study. Methods: This was a secondary data analysis that utilized baseline data obtained from the 504 CNAs, employed in 12 LTC facilities, who participated in the Res-Care study (Resnick et al., 2007). Results: The majority of CNAs were female (93%) and African American (89%). The average CNA age was 39 (SD=12.1). Path analysis results showed that age and self-efficacy (challenges associated with restorative care) were positively related to CNA job satisfaction. Self-esteem was negatively related to CNA job satisfaction and positively related to self-efficacy. None of the variables in the model were related to CNA job performance. Fit statistics showed a good fit of the model to the data (χ<super>2</super> = 9.3, df= 6, χ<super>2</super>/df ratio = 21.6, RMSEA =.03[.00 - .07], CFI = .99). Conclusions: The findings provided partial support for the hypothesized model and utility of the CSE model and Social Cognitive Theory in CNAs. The negative relationship between CNA self-esteem and job satisfaction could have been due to confounding work-related variables. Future research should examine the mediating and moderating effects of job characteristics and organizational characteristics on CNA self-esteem and job satisfaction.
DescriptionUniversity of Maryland in Baltimore. Nursing. Ph.D. 2010