PublisherRockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare
MetadataShow full item record
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
The Results of a Traditional Alcohol Intervention Approach with Alcohol Abusers in a Heavy Industry Setting in RussiaBurgess, Kenneth M.; Lennox, Richard; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Shtoulman, Alexander (Taylor & Francis, 2015-03-15)Motivating alcohol abusers to enter treatment, comply with recommendations, and make significant changes in their behavior is no easy task. In the West, professionals learned the importance of motivation early on, and they learned it first from those recovering in Alcoholics Anonymous. Early occupational alcoholism programs used job performance and disciplinary steps to motivate problem drinkers to take action. The threat of job loss proved significant in breaking through denial and in motivating clients to begin a recovery process. This approach was incorporated into the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) and EAP professionals have used job performance and disciplinary steps to motivate those with many types of personal issues. In the Russian Federation, no such history exists. This workplace-based alcohol intervention program is a first for Russia, and it uses the work performance approach successfully deployed in the West for many decades.
Binge alcohol exposure transiently changes the endocannabinoid system: A potential target to prevent alcohol-induced neurodegenerationLiput, D.J.; Pauly, J.R.; Stinchcomb, A.L. (MDPI AG, 2017)Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB) staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up "target engagement" study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition. Copyright 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Spiritual growth of recovering alcoholic Adult Children of AlcoholicsCarroll, Maria M.; Janzen, Curtis (1993)Jungian theory was used as a way of understanding human behavior and personality development and of enlarging the knowledge base for social work practice. The primary purposes of this exploratory multi-case study were: (1) to identify resources and methods which clinicians may use for promoting personality-spiritual development; and (2) to clarify and expand the profession's knowledge and understanding of spirituality and the transpersonal dimension of the person. The research participants, recovering alcoholic adult children of alcoholics, were assigned to one of two groups based on level of self-actualization (ten self-actualized; seven not-self-actualized) as determined by the Personal Orientation Inventory. Data collection included intensive interviews using Fowler's Faith Development Interview Instrument and the Recovery Interview Guide and the administration of several questionnaires: Clinical Measurement Package Index of Peer Relationships, Symptom Check List-90-Revised, and Problem Check List. A quantitative approach was used to identify the number of resources and methods which recovering alcoholic ACOAs used in their recovery and to relate level of spiritual development with current life functioning which included length of sobriety, faith stage, symptomatology, and problems in daily living. Qualitative methods addressed the types of resources and methods used in the recovery process as well as the respondents' views of spirituality and creativity. Respondents identified specific resources and methods as being particularly helpful. Positive relationships were found between level of self-actualization and most indicators of current life functioning, however, a negative relationship was found between level of self-actualization and length of sobriety. Different definitions of spirituality were made explicit, and a sketch of a new model which offers a broader view of the person was presented as a way of extending the current thinking about spirituality and a person's spiritual development. Implications of the findings for clinicians, researchers, and theoreticians were discussed.