PublisherRockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare
MetadataShow full item record
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Binge alcohol exposure transiently changes the endocannabinoid system: A potential target to prevent alcohol-induced neurodegenerationLiput, D.J.; Pauly, J.R.; Stinchcomb, A.L. (MDPI AG, 2017)Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB) staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up "target engagement" study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition. Copyright 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Spiritual growth of recovering alcoholic Adult Children of AlcoholicsCarroll, Maria M.; Janzen, Curtis (1993)Jungian theory was used as a way of understanding human behavior and personality development and of enlarging the knowledge base for social work practice. The primary purposes of this exploratory multi-case study were: (1) to identify resources and methods which clinicians may use for promoting personality-spiritual development; and (2) to clarify and expand the profession's knowledge and understanding of spirituality and the transpersonal dimension of the person. The research participants, recovering alcoholic adult children of alcoholics, were assigned to one of two groups based on level of self-actualization (ten self-actualized; seven not-self-actualized) as determined by the Personal Orientation Inventory. Data collection included intensive interviews using Fowler's Faith Development Interview Instrument and the Recovery Interview Guide and the administration of several questionnaires: Clinical Measurement Package Index of Peer Relationships, Symptom Check List-90-Revised, and Problem Check List. A quantitative approach was used to identify the number of resources and methods which recovering alcoholic ACOAs used in their recovery and to relate level of spiritual development with current life functioning which included length of sobriety, faith stage, symptomatology, and problems in daily living. Qualitative methods addressed the types of resources and methods used in the recovery process as well as the respondents' views of spirituality and creativity. Respondents identified specific resources and methods as being particularly helpful. Positive relationships were found between level of self-actualization and most indicators of current life functioning, however, a negative relationship was found between level of self-actualization and length of sobriety. Different definitions of spirituality were made explicit, and a sketch of a new model which offers a broader view of the person was presented as a way of extending the current thinking about spirituality and a person's spiritual development. Implications of the findings for clinicians, researchers, and theoreticians were discussed.
The role of mother/infant alcohol dehydrogenase 2, cytochrome P450 2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotype in the development of fetal alcohol spectrum disordersWeeks, Nicole M.; Squibb, Katherine S. (2008)Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are the most common forms of preventable mental retardation affecting children today resulting from prenatal ethanol exposure. It is not currently known if ADH2, Cyp2E1 and/or ALDH2 genotypes or some combination of the three, in mothers and infants, in addition to maternal ethanol intake, increase the likelihood of developing FAS/FASD. A better understanding of the influence of genetic factors on the development of FAS/FASD should allow identification of high risk mothers to target for intervention and improved quality of life for potentially affected infants. To more clearly determine the role of ADH2, Cyp2E1, and ALDH2 in the development of FAS, this research examined the collective effects of polymorphisms in these enzymes. ADH2, Cyp2E1 and ALDH2 genotypes were analyzed in a cohort of 69 mother/infant pairs well characterized with respect to maternal alcohol consumption. The influence of genotype combinations on correlations between maternal ethanol intake and infant outcomes including birth weight, birth length, head circumference Six and twelve month developmental indices were also examined. Mothers possessing the ADH2*3 allele were shown to drink borderline significantly less than mothers lacking the allele (p=0.08). Mothers possessing the Cyp2E1 insertion also showed a borderline significant trend toward lighter drinking (p=0.07). Overall, maternal possession of the ADH2*3 allele after prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with better infant outcomes, as was maternal possession of the Cyp2E1 insertion. A trend emerged in the twelve month MDI/PDI scores where infants born to high-drinking mothers had higher MDI and PDI scores than those born to low-drinking mothers also lacking the insertion (p=0.09 and p=0.11, respectively). There were significant associations between the possession of the ALDH2*2 polymorphism and smaller birth length and head circumference. Analysis did not show any correlation between the ADH2/Cyp2E1 combined genotypes and infant outcome. Overall, this study indicated that polymorphisms in the three major genes responsible for alcohol catabolism can play a role in the development of FAS/FASD after prenatal alcohol exposure. Though this study lacks the statistical power to make strong conclusions, trends towards significance were apparent and indicate a need for future studies.