PublisherRockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare
MetadataShow full item record
Series/Report No.DHEW Publication No. (HSM) 73-9060;
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/7819
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Effectiveness of an ignition interlock device in reducing alcohol-impaired driving recidivism and alcohol-impaired motor vehicle crashes in MarylandKerns, Timothy; Smith, Gordon S., M.B., Ch.B., M.P.H.; Hirshon, Jon Mark (2017)Background: Multiple studies have shown that ignition interlock devices reduce alcohol impaired driving recidivism while the device is installed on the vehicle. However, many of these studies rely on convictions and have limited follow-up after the device has been removed from the vehicle. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the characteristics of drivers who installed an ignition interlock device after receiving an alcohol impaired driving citation and a control group that did not install the device and to determine their risk of receiving a subsequent alcohol related citation or being involved in an alcohol related crash. Methods: A Cox proportional hazard test was used to compare the risk of a subsequent citation or motor vehicle crash between the study groups. Results: The interlock group had a lower proportion of females (22.2% interlock vs 24.2% control, p<0.05), and a higher mean age (36.5 years vs 34.3 years, p<0.05). Forty-six percent of those installing an ignition interlock device had a BAC above 0.15 g/dL as compared with 25% in the control group (p<0.05). The BAC test refusal rate was higher among interlock installers (41.4% vs 33.0%, p<0.05). While the device was installed on the subject's vehicle, drivers were 22% less likely to receive an impaired driving citation as compared to the time when the device was not installed (HR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.73-0.84). After removal, the interlock group was 32% more likely to receive an impaired driving citation versus controls (HR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.22-1.42). Similar patterns were observed with respect to motor vehicle crashes. Conclusion: Drivers who have installed an ignition device on their vehicle have a lower risk of receiving a subsequent alcohol involved driving citation and of being involved in an alcohol related motor vehicle crash while the device is on the vehicle as compared to the control group. Upon removal, the risk of both citations and crashes is higher for those who had an interlock device installed. Ignition interlock devices are effective for the time they are used but should not be the only tool to prevent future events of alcohol involved driving among those previously arrested for impaired driving.
The Results of a Traditional Alcohol Intervention Approach with Alcohol Abusers in a Heavy Industry Setting in RussiaBurgess, Kenneth M.; Lennox, Richard; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Shtoulman, Alexander (Taylor & Francis, 2015-03-15)Motivating alcohol abusers to enter treatment, comply with recommendations, and make significant changes in their behavior is no easy task. In the West, professionals learned the importance of motivation early on, and they learned it first from those recovering in Alcoholics Anonymous. Early occupational alcoholism programs used job performance and disciplinary steps to motivate problem drinkers to take action. The threat of job loss proved significant in breaking through denial and in motivating clients to begin a recovery process. This approach was incorporated into the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) and EAP professionals have used job performance and disciplinary steps to motivate those with many types of personal issues. In the Russian Federation, no such history exists. This workplace-based alcohol intervention program is a first for Russia, and it uses the work performance approach successfully deployed in the West for many decades.
Spiritual growth of recovering alcoholic Adult Children of AlcoholicsCarroll, Maria M.; Janzen, Curtis (1993)Jungian theory was used as a way of understanding human behavior and personality development and of enlarging the knowledge base for social work practice. The primary purposes of this exploratory multi-case study were: (1) to identify resources and methods which clinicians may use for promoting personality-spiritual development; and (2) to clarify and expand the profession's knowledge and understanding of spirituality and the transpersonal dimension of the person. The research participants, recovering alcoholic adult children of alcoholics, were assigned to one of two groups based on level of self-actualization (ten self-actualized; seven not-self-actualized) as determined by the Personal Orientation Inventory. Data collection included intensive interviews using Fowler's Faith Development Interview Instrument and the Recovery Interview Guide and the administration of several questionnaires: Clinical Measurement Package Index of Peer Relationships, Symptom Check List-90-Revised, and Problem Check List. A quantitative approach was used to identify the number of resources and methods which recovering alcoholic ACOAs used in their recovery and to relate level of spiritual development with current life functioning which included length of sobriety, faith stage, symptomatology, and problems in daily living. Qualitative methods addressed the types of resources and methods used in the recovery process as well as the respondents' views of spirituality and creativity. Respondents identified specific resources and methods as being particularly helpful. Positive relationships were found between level of self-actualization and most indicators of current life functioning, however, a negative relationship was found between level of self-actualization and length of sobriety. Different definitions of spirituality were made explicit, and a sketch of a new model which offers a broader view of the person was presented as a way of extending the current thinking about spirituality and a person's spiritual development. Implications of the findings for clinicians, researchers, and theoreticians were discussed.