Maryland's First Unaccompanied Homeless Youth & Young Adult Count: Findings from Youth REACH MD Phase 2
PublisherUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore. School of Social Work. Institute for Innovation & Implementation
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Other TitlesFindings from Maryland's First Unaccompanied Homeless Youth & Young Adult Count: Youth REACH MD Phase 2 Report.
AbstractEvery night in Maryland, thousands of youth and young adults living on their own turn to their a friend's couch, a stranger's house, a vacant building, the street, or some other tenuous or unsuitable location for a place to sleep. These are unaccompanied homeless youth - youth or young adults under 25 years old who are not in the care of their parents or guardians and lack access to safe, adequate, and reliable housing. We know these youth are individuals with their own stories and experiences and that they are not defined by their housing status. This report—and all of the work of Youth REACH MD—is designed to identify the common challenges and barriers that result in youth and young adults experiencing homelessness in order to end youth homelessness. No finding, statement, or analysis in this report should be taken to diminish the importance of the voices of youth and young adults or to minimize the individual experiences, preferences, and vision for the future that each youth and young adult has for themselves. This report reflects the aggregate findings regarding a diverse population of youth and young adults who were willing share of themselves by participating in this survey, and we are grateful to them for sharing their stories and experiences with us and for helping us to gain new and deeper understanding of what it means to experience homelessness.
Table of ContentsNote to Readers; Introduction & Purpose; Methods, State Preparation & CoC Engagement, Refining the Definition, Social Marketing & Incentives, Local Implementation, School Engagement, Enumeration, Data Strategy; Findings, Results from the Survey, A Closer Look: Survey & HMIS Data in Baltimore City; Conclusions; Works Cited; Appendices, Appendix 1: Youth REACH MD Definition Guidance, Appendix 2: Youth REACH MD Survey, Appendix 3: Local Implementation Strategies: Anne Arundel County, Baltimore City, Baltimore County, Prince George's County, Lower Shore, Washington County; Appendix 4: Foster Care in Maryland
DescriptionThis report, with contributors from the Youth REACH MD Steering Committee, the Baltimore Homeless Youth Initiative and the Youth Empowered Society, describes common challenges and barriers that result in youth and young adults experiencing homelessness.
SponsorsFunding for the Demonstration Project was provided by the Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development.
Keywordunaccompanied homeless youth
Youth REACH MD
Surveys and Questionnaires
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/7407
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Youth risk factors and educational outcomes of mentored and non-mentored youthCastellanos-Brown, Karen; Harrington, Donna (2010)As mentoring is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve youth educational outcomes, it is important to continue to examine the effects of mentoring on these youth outcomes. This study uses secondary data from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and transcript data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA). In seeking support for the compensatory model of resilience, this dissertation uses multiple and logistic regression analyses to examine the direct effects of youth risk factors and the compensatory factor (mentoring) on the educational outcomes: cumulative grade point average (GPA) and graduation from high school. The moderating effects of mentoring on the relationship between youth risk factors and these educational outcomes are also examined. The findings from this study suggest the following characteristics are risk factors for a lower cumulative GPA: younger age, academic risk, racial/ethnic minority status, low maternal education, living with less than both biological parents, lower levels of parental closeness, and lower levels of parental school involvement. On the other hand, only academic risk, low maternal education, and lack of parental participation in school fundraising and volunteering appear to be risk factors for not graduating from high school. Findings also indicate that the compensatory factor, mentoring, is significantly associated with a higher GPA, but is not significantly associated with graduation after controlling for youth risk factors and demographic factors. In support of the protective factor model, two significant moderating relationships were found in terms of predicting graduation between mentoring and the risk factors of living with less than both biological parents and lack of parental participation in school fundraising and volunteering. This study also found that cumulative risk (cumulative risk score was composed of 5 of the risk factors examined) is significantly related to both GPA and graduation, suggesting that youth with more risk factors have worse educational outcomes. The findings of this dissertation add to the existing literature on mentoring and youth educational outcomes. This dissertation's implications for theory, social work, educational practice, policy, and research are discussed as well as this dissertation's strengths and limitations.
Linking Mother and Youth Parenting Attitudes: Indirect Effects via Maltreatment, Parent Involvement, and Youth FunctioningThompson, R.; Jones, D.J.; Litrownik, A.J.; English, D.J.; Kotch, J.B.; Lewis, T.; Dubowitz, H. (SAGE Publications Inc., 2014)Evidence suggests that parenting attitudes are transmitted within families. However, limited research has examined this prospectively. The current prospective study examined direct effects of early maternal attitudes toward parenting (as measured at child age 4 by the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory [AAPI]) on later youth parenting attitudes (as measured by the AAPI at youth age 18). Indirect effects via child maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment), parent involvement, and youth functioning (internalizing and externalizing problems) were also assessed. Analyses were conducted on data from 412 families enrolled in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). There were significant direct effects for three of the four classes of mother parenting attitudes (appropriate developmental expectations of children, empathy toward children, and appropriate family roles) on youth attitudes but not for rejection of punishment. In addition, the following indirect effects were obtained: Mother expectations influenced youth expectations via neglect; mother empathy influenced youth empathy via both parental involvement and youth externalizing problems; and mother rejection of punishment influenced youth rejection of punishment via youth internalizing problems. None of the child or family process variables, however, affected the link between mother and youth attitudes about roles. Copyright The Author(s) 2014.
Correlates of parent-youth discordance about youth-witnessed violence: A brief report germanyLewis, T.; Thompson, R.; Kotch, J.B.; Proctor, L.J.; Litrownik, A.J.; English, D.J.; Runyan, D.K.; Wiley, T.R.; Dubowitz, H. (Springer US, 2013)Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence (YWV). However, little empirical investigation has been conducted on the correlates of disagreement. Concordance between youth and parents about YWV was examined in 766 parent-youth dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Results showed that significantly more youth (42%) than parents (15%) reported YWV. Among the dyads in which at least one informant reported YWV (N =344), we assessed whether youth delinquency, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, history of child maltreatment, income, and parental depression were predictive of parent-youth concordance. Findings indicated that youth engagement in delinquent activities was higher in the groups in which the youth reported violence exposure. More empirical study is needed to assess correlates of agreement in high-risk youth to better inform associations found between exposures and outcomes as well as practice and policy for violence exposed youth. Copyright 2013 Springer Publishing Company.