• Antibody against Microbial Neuraminidases Recognizes Human Sialidase 3 (NEU3): the Neuraminidase/Sialidase Superfamily Revisited

      Feng, Chiguang; Li, Jihong; Snyder, Greg, Ph.D.; Goldblum, Simeon E.; Chen, Wilbur H.; Wang, Lai-Xi; McClane, Bruce A.; Cross, Alan S. (2017-06-27)
    • National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Annual Influenza Pneumococcal Conference

      Schaffner, William, 1937-; Frieden, Tom; Whitley-Williams, Patricia; Chen, Wilbur H. (2016-09-29)
    • A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind Phase 2 trial comparing the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a single ≥2x108 colony forming units [cfu] standard-dose versus a ≥2x109 cfu high-dose of CVD 103-HgR live attenuated oral cholera vaccine, with Shanchol inactivated oral vaccine as an open label immunologic comparator

      Sow, Samba O.; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Chen, Wilbur H. (2017-10-11)
      Reactive immunization with a single-dose cholera vaccine that could rapidly (within days) protect immunologically-naïve individuals during “virgin soil” epidemics would facilitate cholera control. One dose of attenuated Vibrio cholerae O1 classical Inaba vaccine CVD 103-HgR (VaxchoraTM) containing >2x108 colony forming units (cfu) induces vibriocidal antibody seroconversion (correlate of protection) in >90% of U.S. adults. A previous CVD 103-HgR commercial formulation required >2x109 cfu to elicit high seroconversion in developing country populations. We compared vibriocidal responses of Malians (18-45 years old) randomized to ingest a single >2x108 cfu standard-dose (N=50) or >2x109 cfu high-dose (N=50) of PaxVax CVD 103-HgR with buffer, or two doses (N=50) of ShancholTM inactivated cholera vaccine (the immunologic comparator). To maintain blinding, participants were dosed twice, 2 weeks apart; CVD 103-HgR recipients ingested placebo weeks before or after ingesting vaccine. Seroconversion (>4-fold vibriocidal titer rise) between baseline and 14 days after CVD 103-HgR, and following the first and second dose of Shanchol were the main outcomes measured. By day 14 post-vaccination, seroconversion after a single standard-dose of CVD 103-HgR was 71.7% (33/46) and 83.3% (40/48) after high-dose. Seroconversion following first-dose Shanchol 56.0% (28/50) was significantly lower compared with high-dose CVD 103-HgR (p=0.003). High-dose CVD 103-HgR vibriocidal geometric mean titer (GMT) exceeded standard-dose GMT at day 14 (214 vs 95, p=0.045) and was ~2-fold higher than day 7 and day 14 GMT following the first Shanchol dose (p>0.05). High-dose CVD 103-HgR is recommended for accelerated evaluation in developing countries to assess efficacy and practicality in field situations. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02145377)
    • Report on WHO meeting on immunizations in older adults: Geneva, Switzerland, 22-23 March 2017

      Aquado, M. Teresa; Barratt, Jane; Beard, John R.; Blomberg, Bonnie; Chen, Wilbur H.; Hickling, Julian; Hyde, Terri B.; Jit, Mark; Jones, Rebecca, M.Sc., Ph.D.; Poland, Gregory A.; et al. (Elsevier, 2018)
      Many industrialized countries have implemented routine immunization policies for older adults, but similar strategies have not been widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In March 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a meeting to identify policies and activities to promote access to vaccination of older adults, specifically in LMICs. Participants included academic and industry researchers, funders, civil society organizations, implementers of global health interventions, and stakeholders from developing countries with adult immunization needs. These experts reviewed vaccine performance in older adults, the anticipated impact of adult vaccination programs, and the challenges and opportunities of building or strengthening an adult and older adult immunization platforms. Key conclusions of the meeting were that there is a need for discussion of new opportunities for vaccination of all adults as well as for vaccination of older adults, as reflected in the recent shift by WHO to a life-course approach to immunization; that immunization in adults should be viewed in the context of a much broader model based on an individual’s abilities rather than chronological age; and that immunization beyond infancy is a global priority that can be successfully integrated with other interventions to promote healthy ageing. As WHO is looking ahead to a global Decade of Healthy Ageing starting in 2020, it will seek to define a roadmap for interdisciplinary collaborations to integrate immunization with improving access to preventive and other healthcare interventions for adults worldwide.