Browsing Theses and Dissertations School of Pharmacy by Title "The Association of Antiretroviral Treatment and Early Menopause in Women Aging with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus"
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The Association of Antiretroviral Treatment and Early Menopause in Women Aging with the Human Immunodeficiency VirusWomen living with HIV (WLWH) have irregular menses with several periods of prolonged amenorrhea but their risk of early menopause, clinically defined as before age 45 years, is unknown. This is largely because there is no gold standard method to confirm menopause. Antimullerian hormone (AMH) is a biomarker indicative of ovarian reserve; however, no prior study has used this to confirm menopause. This study aimed to 1) confirm menopause using AMH; 2) determine if WLWH are at an increased risk of early menopause compared to at-risk, uninfected women; and 3) evaluate the relationship between time-varying ART use with early menopause in WLWH. Data were derived from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study, which had four enrollment waves from 1994 through 2016 across 11 US clinic sites. Women were followed prospectively from their baseline visit until menopause confirmation, loss to follow up, or end of study (12/31/2018), whichever came first. The study cohort was women ages 18 or older with no history of: menopause; hysterectomy/uterine cancer/double oophorectomy; any type of cancer, except skin cancer. Women were censored if they experienced any aforementioned events in follow-up. The study measures confirm menopause were at least 12 months of amenorrhea without resumption of menses and an undetectable AMH (<0.10ng/mL). Age at menopause was determined upon confirmation of final menstrual period. A Cox Proportional Hazards model determined the risk of early menopause among WLWH relative to at-risk uninfected women. Marginal Structural Cox Proportional Hazards models with stabilized weights estimated the effect of >75% adherence to ART, modeled as a time-varying covariate, on the risk of early menopause. Age at confirmed menopause with undetectable AMH was 48.6±4.3 years as compared to 41.2±5.6 years for women with amenorrhea without menses resumption and detectable AMH. WLWH reached menopause at significantly earlier ages and had a two-fold increased risk of experiencing early menopause than at-risk, uninfected women. There was a non-significant protective effect of ≥75% ART adherence on early menopause. AMH can improve the precision in determining age of menopause, which is an integral part of understanding the risk for early menopausal and future planning for postmenopausal care in WLWH.