• Investigation of sigma and dextromethorphan-like neuroprotection using glutamate-induced LDH release, cellular morphology and dynamic calcium signaling

      Klette, Kevin Louis; Moreton, J. Edward (1995)
      The role of the putative sigma receptor in mediating neuroprotection against glutamate induced neuronal injury was examined in mature cultured rat cortical neurons. With the exception of the sigma1, selective ligand (+)-3-PPP, all of the sigma receptor ligands tested were neuroprotective, preventing glutamate induced morphological changes and increases in LDH release. When corrected for relative sigma versus PCP binding site affinity, it appears that a positive correlation exists between neuroprotective potency and sigma1, site affinity. None of the sigma ligands were neurotoxic when tested alone at concentrations at least 5-30 times their respective neuroprotective EC{dollar}\sb{lcub}50{rcub}{dollar} values. The effect of neuroprotective sigma ligands on the unique calcium responses evoked by glutamate, NMDA, potassium chloride (KCl) and trans-ACPD were investigated to elucidate the mechanism of sigma-mediated neuroprotection. In general, except for (+)-3-PPP all of the sigma ligands studied interfered with glutamate and NMDA induced (Ca{dollar}\sp{lcub}2+{rcub}\rbrack\sb{lcub}\rm i{rcub}{dollar} signaling, but, highly sigma{dollar}\sb1{dollar} selective ligands also lacking substantial PCP binding site affinity (i.e. carbetapentane, DTG and haloperidol) were much less effective in altering calcium influx induced by 80 {dollar}\mu{dollar}M glutamate. In contrast to glutamate, KCl (50 mM) produced changes in (Ca{dollar}\sp{lcub}2+{rcub}\rbrack\sb{lcub}\rm i{rcub}{dollar} which were not neurotoxic to the neurons as measured by LDH release. Sigma ligands which lack substantial PCP site afflinity were very effective in altering KCl induced calcium signaling while the sigma/PCP site ligand (+)-cyclazocine was ineffective or, in the case of (+)-SKF 10047, much less effective. Similar to the effects of sigma ligands on KCl induced calcium dynamics, the sigma selective ligands DTG, haloperidol, (+)-pentazocine, and carbetapentane were very effective in altering intracellular calcium dynamics evoked by trans-ACPD while the sigma/PCP ligand (+)-SKF 10047 was ineffective or, in the case of (+)-cyclazocine, much less effective. Importantly, (+)-3-PPP, a non-neuroprotective sigma selective ligand, actually potentiated the calcium response elicited by trans-ACPD. The ability of sigma ligands applied at maximal neuroprotective concentrations to attenuate receptor and/or voltage-gated changes in calcium dynamics suggests that modulation of neurotoxic (Ca{dollar}\sp{lcub}2+{rcub}\rbrack\sb{lcub}\rm i{rcub}{dollar} plays a significant role in sigma-mediated neuroprotection. The unique modulatory effects of sigma ligands on the buffering of neuronal (Ca{dollar}\sp{lcub}2+{rcub}\rbrack\sb{lcub}\rm i{rcub}{dollar} will likely have numerous therapeutic applications in the treatment of CNS injury and other neurodegenerative disorders.