• Transcriptional regulation and neoplastic transforming potential of the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus type 2

      Wymer, James Paul; Aurelian, Laure (1991)
      Herpes simplex virus (HSV) genes are regulated in a cascade of immediate early (IE), delayed early (DE), late (L). The large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) from HSV-2, designated ICP10, has been grouped with DE proteins. The amino-terminal domain of ICP10 has protein kinase (PK) activity and properties similar to growth factor receptor kinases that can be activated to transforming potential. The studies described in this dissertation sought to develop a better understanding of regulatory aspects of ICP10 regulation as well as the role of ICP10 expression in neoplastic transformation. Regulation of expression of the ICP10 gene was studied by immunofluorescence with the intact ICP10 gene or by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) analysis with hybrid ICP10 promoter constructions containing the wild type ICP10 promoter or site-directed mutants deficit in specific cis-response motifs. Co-transfection of these constructions with DNA encoding an HSV nonspecific transactivator (IE110) or an IE gene-specific transactivator (Vmw65), enhanced expression at least 10-fold, regardless of the assay system. In contrast, expression was minimally enhanced by DNA encoding a DE gene transactivator (IE175) at low doses and slightly reduced at high doses. Sequence analysis of the ICP10 promoter revealed the presence of both herpesvirus IE gene-specific (TAATGARAT, GA-rich, and {dollar}\alpha{dollar}H2-{dollar}\alpha{dollar}H3 motifs), as well as cellular cis-response motifs (potential SP-1, consensus AP-1, and octamer transcription factor-1 (OTF-1) binding elements). Factors that bind to the ICP10 promoter were identified by gel retardation analysis with mixtures of uninfected cell nuclear extracts and virion lysates or in vitro synthesized OTF-1 and Vmw65. The Oct-1 motif (ATGCAAAT) was necessary for optimal Vmw65 binding to, but not for transactivation of the ICP10 promoter as evidenced by competition experiments with oligonucleotides overlapping the consensus IE110 promoter virion response element and by site-directed mutagenesis of the motif. The 3{dollar}\sp\prime{dollar} portion of the TAATGARAT motif (GARAT) was dispensible for binding but necessary for activation. These data suggest that ICP10 behaves as an IE gene and could therefore affect host gene regulation independent of lytic infection. ICP10-PK has neoplastic transforming potential in vitro. Anchorage independent growth was observed in cells transfected with the vectors that express the entire ICP10 protein or just the PK domain, but not a frameshift (not expressing ICP10) mutant or a carboxy-terminus (RR domain) expression vector.
    • A study of selected physico-mechanical aspects of the extrusion and spheronization processes and their relationship to the design of pelletted pharmaceutical formulations

      Shah, Rajen Dhirubhai; Augsburger, Larry L. (1991)
      Pellets are becoming increasingly popular as unique delivery systems. Of the several processes available to prepare these pellets, extrusion/spheronization is better suited to produce pellets with the desired attributes such as narrow size distribution, high bulk density and low friability. The prevalent empirical approach to optimize this process warrants a complete understanding of its rheological requirements. The specific objectives are to identify and define criteria such as the plastic yield value which may govern the success of this process, and to assess the contribution of Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) to this process. Toward this end, a twin screw extruder EXDS-60 was specially instrumented to measure screen pressure and screen temperature. In addition, techniques were developed to measure three properties of the wet mass, viz., yield value, tensile strength, and yield loci, in an attempt to relate to the qualities of ideal extrudates for spheronization. Using a model lactose/MCC system, statistically designed experiments were planned to study the relationship between formulation variables, rheological parameters of the wet mass, and quality parameters of the dried pellets. The instrumentation output provided new insights into the interplay between formulation and extrusion process variables and is further expected to assist in the design of formulations by providing objective measures of extrudability. The rheogram of the wet masses provided an important parameter in yield value. The tensile strength measurement with a specially designed split-die system provided valuable information regarding the mechanism of bonding within the wet mass. Also, the combination of yield value and weight of extrudate (as an indirect measure of tensile strength) could be used to predict the shape of the pellets. The yield loci parameters were useful in detecting over-wet granulations. Upon careful analysis of the experimental data, it was apparent that there was a critical range of rheological parameters within which pellets having optimum sphericity and narrow size distribution can be prepared. This critical range was defined as the rheological "window" within which both extrusion and spheronization can be carried out satisfactorily. Initially, MCC is perceived to be an essential "cure-all" ingredient for all extrusion/spheronization problems. Based on a consideration of the physico-chemical properties of MCC, and evidence from scanning electron microscopy, its unique contribution was attributed to its high internal porosity, and the formation of a particle network in the localized areas of the wet mass. In conclusion, the knowledge gained from this investigation facilitates the design of pelletted formulations by reducing reliance on empiricism.
    • Pain, coping, and depression following burn injury

      Ulmer, Janice Fitzgerald; Gift, Audrey G. (1991)
      Pain, coping, and depression were examined in a convenience sample of 32 burn injured men and women. Subjects were interviewed 3 times at approximately weekly intervals. The first and third interviews focused on coping, the second interview focused on how burn pain is described and rated by burn injured subjects and their care providers. Three criterion variables, pain intensity, pain distress, and depression were used to measure coping outcome. Five variables, severity of injury, surgical intensity, baseline depression, duration of pain, and level of analgesic drug were predicted to influence coping. Although the burn wound was identified as the source of worst pain, when subjects were asked to rate wound, donor, and skin graft pain using the short form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ-SF), no significant differences were found. Average pain intensity, average pain distress, and level of depression decreased significantly over time. Pain with routine activity and pain worst continued to be rated moderate to severe by most patients at the third interview. No changes were noted in coping strategy use when coping was measured using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Subjects' perceptions of their ability to control pain increased significantly over the three measurement sessions. Subjects' perceptions of their ability to decrease their pain increased but did not achieve significance. Significant correlations between predictor and criterion variables were found for severity of injury, duration of pain, level of analgesic drug, baseline depression, and perceptions of ability to control and decrease pain. Significant correlations were also found between the criterion variables and beliefs related to personal control and the tendency to catastrophize. A significant positive correlation was found between care provider estimates of pain distress today and the average self-reported pain distress score. Care provider estimates of pain intensity today did not correlate with the average self-reported pain intensity score. When t-test comparisons were made between care provider and patient ratings no significant differences were found.
    • A study of family life education experiences among Chewa grandmothers, mothers, and daughters in Malawi

      Banda, Eta Elizabeth; Ruth, M. Virginia; Kreider, Mildred Sherk, 1936- (1991)
      A significant problem in adolescent health care in Malawi is a lack of information about family life education. The purpose of this descriptive and correlational study was to describe family life education experiences of Chewa grandmothers, mothers and daughters as a means of identifying the nature of the organization and type of educational programme/learning experiences that traditionally have been offered for developmental task readiness for adult life. The subjects for preliminary interviews were limited to three sets of grandmothers, mothers and daughters, i.e. nine participants. This data was used to develop the tool utilized for data collection in the study. The sample size for this study was 300. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, chi-square, analysis of variance and content analysis. Family life education organization was primarily perceived to be either the responsibility of the family or a shared responsibility between the family, village and other social organizations. Family life education was mainly informally conducted within the family, although multiple resources were utilized for teaching. Music in combination with verbal communication played an important role in instruction and reading was observed to be almost absent as a method of teaching across all generations. Although mostly of the teaching was done didactically there was some practical experience in the sex education component where a female adolescent was given a male partner to learn and this male was called a 'fisi'. Significant differences were found in virtually all organizational variables, by generation and area of residence. Ten categories of family life education learning experiences were identified and tested for differences on the basis of generation and area of residence. The results revealed statistically significant intergenerational as well as geographic differences in learning experiences in sex education, menstruation and sanitary towel care, anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system, socialization into adulthood, relationships with parents, elders, peers of the same and opposite sex, and disabled persons, traditional practices, psychological and spiritual issues. In addition analysis of variance to examine differences in traditional values between grandmothers, mothers and daughters revealed a statistically significant main effect for generation on traditional family values. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.)
    • Trophic influences on embryonic chicken spinal motor neurons

      Jeong, Soo Jeong; Oh, Tae H. (1991)
      Embryonic spinal motor neurons are generated in excess. Superfluous neurons are subsequently eliminated by a process of naturally occurring cell death which coincides with the innervation of the target tissue, skeletal muscle. From extensive in vivo and in vitro studies, motor neurons have been shown to depend upon a target-derived trophic factor in order to survive the period of cell death. However, such a trophic factor for motor neurons has not been identified and characterized as yet. To investigate the trophic influences of skeletal muscle and of other cells interacting with motor neurons, purified motor neuron cultures were established from 6-day-old chicken embryos using metrizamide step-gradient centrifugation. One of the cell fractions was enriched in spinal motor neurons since it contained cells with a high specific activity of choline acetyltransferase (CAT), a high percentage of retrogradely labeled cells, and which had a large average cell diameter. Our laboratory has isolated a neurite-promoting protein from striated muscles. This protein has been further characterized by various biochemical, biological, and immunological assays. when the protein was tested in neuronal cultures including spinal motor, sensory, and autonomic neurons, it supported survival and neuritic growth of all neurons tested but it was not able to promote CAT activity or choline uptake by motor neurons. Although the biological effect of the protein is not specific for motor neurons, it does promote survival and growth of the neurons in culture. Additional trophic influences on spinal motor neurons were studied using media conditioned by skeletal muscle, heart muscle, sensory neurons, astrocytes, and Schwann cells. These conditioned media promoted the survival, neuritic growth, and CAT activity of the cultured motor neurons. Motor neurons especially exhibited distinct neuritic arborization in different conditioned media. These data suggest that the cells interacting with motor neurons in situ may affect the survival and development of the motor neuron. The present study provides some basic properties of the trophic interactions between motor neurons and their environment. Further characterization of the neurite-promoting protein should help in better understanding the nature of trophic interactions at the molecular level.
    • The relationship between child sexual abuse and self-concept in adult women: A community survey study

      Gibbons, John Joseph; Vassil, Thomas V. (1991)
      The relationship between Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) and Self-Concept was investigated using subjects from a community survey study conducted in Baltimore, Maryland. Regression and Step-wise regression analysis were employed to (1) identify CSA as a statistically significant predictor of self-concept, i.e. self-esteem and locus of control, (2) to control for extraneous variables, and (3) to rank order predictor variables in terms of their effect on the dependent variables. Several situational variables, i.e. variables inherent in the abuse event and a possible intervening variable, i.e. perceived social support were also controlled for. Statistically significant relationships were found between (1) CSA and self-esteem and locus of control, (2) CSA with intercourse and self-esteem and locus of control, and (3) Perceived Social Support and self-esteem and locus of control. Findings are discussed with implications for social work research, practice and policy.
    • Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a human chromosomal region which renders in vitro phenotypic correction of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D

      Flejter, Wendy L.; Schultz, Roger Alan (1991)
      Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) has been a focus of extensive investigation since its clinical description in 1874 and the subsequent demonstration of a DNA repair defect in 1968. However, identification of the mutant genes responsible for XP has been hindered by numerous experimental limitations and extensive genetic heterogeneity. The obvious in vitro phenotypes of UV sensitivity and defective DNA repair observed in XP fibroblasts can be complemented following transfer of chromosomes from normal cells. This strategy offers an excellent approach for gene mapping and cloning of the defective genes. Recently, a rearranged single human chromosome (Tneo) has been isolated which restores both UV light resistance and DNA repair activity in XP complementation group D (XP-D) cells. The cytogenetic and molecular characterization of Tneo was the focus of this dissertation. The results provided preliminary mapping of the XP-D locus and serve as a critical first step in the isolation of the gene(s) defective in XP-D cells. Classical cytogenetic analysis revealed that Tneo is a monocentric chromosome of undefined human origin. "Reverse in situ hybridization" by Alu-PCR indicated that this chromosome involves a complex rearrangement consisting of chromosome segments from 16q, 17p and 19. "Painting" with chromosome-specific DNA libraries was used to define the orientation of the chromosomal segments present in Tneo. Southern blot hybridizations using chromosome-specific probes further delineated the specific breakpoints involved in the Tneo rearrangement, as consistent with a der(16)(19pter{dollar}\to{dollar}19p13.2::17p?{dollar}\to{dollar}17p?::19p13.1{dollar}\to{dollar}19p13.1::16cen{dollar}\to{dollar}16q23q24?:: 19q13.2{dollar}\to{dollar}19q13.3::17p?{dollar}\to{dollar}17p?). Deletions of the complementing chromosome were generated and revealed that the restoration of UV resistance in XP-D cells resides in chromosomal material in the distal q-arm of Tneo. Molecular characterization demonstrated that the XP-D complementing region involves DNA derived from 19q13.2{dollar}\to{dollar}19q13.3 and 17p. Transfer of a normal human chromosome 17 into XP-D cells failed to correct the defective phenotypes, implying that the XP-D gene lies within or near 19q13.2{dollar}\to{dollar}19q13. It is of particular interest that this region includes a previously described human DNA repair gene cluster. The experiments described have generated materials which should prove valuable for the molecular cloning of the XP-D gene(s). Additionally, the data illustrate the power of combined cytogenetic and molecular mapping techniques for use in the isolation of genes defective in a variety of human genetic disorders which exhibit in vitro phenotypes.
    • Role of cytokines in Campylobacter jejuni infection and immunity in mice

      Baqar, Shahida; Rollwagen, Florence M.; Falkler, William A., Ph.D. (1991)
      Cytokines incorporated into agarose blocks and implanted subcutaneously into mice established an in vivo gradient which can be used to mimic a local inflammatory process. A model was developed in which cellular influx into cytokine impregnated blocks paralleled the normal cellular reaction to infections or wounds. Agarose blocks containing antigens of the intestinal pathogen, C. jejuni, were implanted in normal and infected mice. Kinetics of cellular influx into the blocks showed an early influx of lymphocytes in infected mice only. The two groups showed similar but discrete patterns of cytokine secretion within the blocks. Infected, but not normal mice, were actively synthesizing antibodies to C. jejuni at the local site (within the blocks), whereas the levels of total immunoglobulin were similar for the two groups. The results suggested that the agarose block model can be successfully applied to study local cytokine production and the role of various cells in infectious diseases. The primary infection with C. jejuni in mice resulted in the generation of sensitized B and T cells which could be boosted by rechallenge with homologous bacteria. These results indicated the presence of a functional immunity to C. jejuni challenge in mice. An antibody secreting cell assay allowed the early detection of specific antibody producing cells in circulation. In addition, data suggested a homing pattern of B cells to spleen as well as Peyer's patches. The profile of cytokine production at a local site (intestine) and in the circulation is suggestive of a role of local IL-1 and local as well as systemic IL-6 in immunity and in the pathogenesis of Campylobacter. Crude cytokine suspensions, when fed orally before challenging with C. jejuni, reduced the bacterial load from the gut and also augmented both humoral and cellular immune responses to the bacterial antigens. Oral treatment of mice with rIL-6 had an immediate effect in reducing the bacterial load whereas this effect was delayed in mice treated with rIL-5. Although IL-6 and IL-5 enhanced local as well as systemic antibodies to C. jejuni, these provided only a partial protection from rechallenge with homologous bacteria. On the other hand, mice treated with rIL-2 before challenge had better protection and a faster clearance of bacteria from their guts. In none of the groups could DTH to bacterial antigens be demonstrated, however, the lymphocytes responded to in vitro by stimulation with the same antigens. The data suggested that various cytokines have potential for use as immune modifiers to enhance the immune response to various enteric pathogens. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.)
    • Acute sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis and blood transfusion in Makkah province, Saudi Arabia

      Ghabrah, Tawfik Mohammed; Strickland, G. Thomas (1991)
      Non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) is a disease of worldwide distribution. It represents an important public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The present study investigates the association between blood transfusion and acute NANBH and identifies other risk factors for NANBH using a hospital-based case-control study design. By using the first generation anti-HCV test, it also reports the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among acute NANBH cases and describes and compares the characteristics of HCV infection with those of other types of viral hepatitis. Risk factor information questionnaires concerning blood transfusion and other risk factors were completed for 97 acute NANBH cases and 194 controls, 13 years of age and older. After adjusting for both living or travelling into more endemic areas and contact with a jaundiced person, a history of blood transfusion was associated with about a 4-fold increase in risk for acute NANBH. Although this association was statistically nonsignificant, a significant dose-response effect was observed as a 3.5-fold increase in risk per transfusion. The two adjustment variables were the only ones among many risk factors which persisted in showing a significant association with the risk of acquiring acute NANBH throughout the analyses. Antibody to hepatitis C virus was found in 8 of the 97 acute NANBH cases for whom various characteristics including possible risk factors have been defined. In conclusion, commonly recognized risk factors (except parenteral drug abuse) for acquiring various types of viral hepatitis were present in 70% of acute NANBH cases. When compared to controls, NANBH cases did not significantly differ in frequency of parenteral exposures. On the contrary, the enterical route of transmission was more likely in NANBH cases who significantly differed from controls in reporting a history of both living or travelling into more endemic areas, especially the Indian subcontinent, and contact with a jaundiced person. Exposure to persons with subclinical infection or asymptomatic chronic carriers could account for the 30% of cases in which no specific risk factors could be identified. Early identification and implementation of preventive measures to reduce the disease incidence is recommended for high risk groups.
    • Partial purification and characterization of a C-methyltransferase from streptonigrin-producing Streptomyces flocculus

      Fox, Bonnie Marie; Speedie, Marilyn K. (1991)
      A C-methyltransferase which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the C-3 position of the aliphatic side chain of L-tryptophan resulting in formation of {dollar}\beta{dollar}-methyl tryptophan, has been isolated from streptonigrin-producing Streptomyces flocculus. The enzyme catalyzes the first step in streptonigrin biosynthesis and is postulated to have a regulatory role in the pathway. The enzyme has been purified 217-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation, followed by sequential gel filtration through Sephadex G-150 and Sephadex G-100 SF columns. Attempts at further purification have been hindered by very active proteases which co-purify with the enzyme. Protease inhibitors PMSF, pepstatin A, leupeptin, and trypsin inhibitor have failed to inactivate the protease activity. Based on comparison to reference proteins, the C-methyltransferase was estimated to have a molecular weight of 40,000 by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration. A narrow pH optimum of 7.5-8.0 was determined for the enzyme. The Sephadex G-100 SF fraction was highly unstable, losing 90 {dollar}\pm{dollar} 6% of its activity after 12 hours at 4{dollar}\sp\circ{dollar}C. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine and L-cysteine have been found to stabilize activity in the purified fractions. The enzyme is inhibited by sulfhydryl binding reagents, but no such inhibition is observed in the presence of substrate, suggesting an essential {dollar}-{dollar}SH group at or near the active site. Inhibition by carbonyl reagents was exhibited by the C-methyltransferase. Tritiated sodium cyanoborohydride treatment of the Sephadex G-100 SF fraction resulted in tritium incorporation and a concomitant 36 {dollar}\pm{dollar} 1% inactivation of the enzyme. These combined data led to the hypothesis that pyridoxal-5{dollar}\sp\prime{dollar}-phosphate may be involved as a cofactor in the C-methyltransferase. An enzymatic mechanism is proposed, and several studies related to this mechanism are presented.
    • Testosterone regulates mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase gene expression in rat ventral prostate

      Qian, Kaifeng; Franklin, Renty B.; Costello, Leslie (1991)
      One of the physiological functions of the rat ventral prostate, like human prostate, is to secrete an extraordinarily high quantity of citrate. This unique characteristic is under the influence of testicular androgen. The continuous secretion of citrate from prostate results in loss of a 6-carbon compound from the metabolic pool which must be replenished. Citrate is synthesized from the concentration of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. Acetyl-CoA may come from various sources. However, recent studies indicated that the possible available source for oxaloacetate is the transamination of aspartate. Mitochondrial aspartate amino-transferase (mAAT) is an important enzyme which regulates citrate production in rat ventral prostate. Testosterone, as a major testicular androgen, stimulates citrate production and mAAT activity in a similar pattern. The hypothesis in this dissertation is that the ability of testosterone to increase citrate production and mAAT activity is the result of stimulation of mAAT gene expression. To verify this hypothesis, numerous in vivo and in vitro studies were utilized to analyze the steady-state level of mAAT mRNA in response to testosterone depletion and repletion. The rats were castrated, followed by testosterone or oil vehicle injection. Twenty-four (or forty-eight) hours later all animals were killed, prostates removed, RNA and nuclei isolated. In vitro studies were performed using primary cultured pig prostate cells. The quantity of mAAT mRNA was measured using northern hybridization. The rates of transcription and degradation of mAAT mRNA were determined by in vitro transcription assay and pulse chase labeling assay, respectively. Results show that castration caused a significant decrease in the content of mAAT mRNA and the transcription rate of the mAAT gene. However, testosterone administration reversed these hormonal depletion effects. Moreover, testosterone administration also prolonged the half life of mAAT mRNA. These results support the hypothesis that one of the major physiological functions of testosterone is to stimulate mAAT mRNA gene expression, which in turn enhances citrate production in rat ventral prostate. Furthermore, these results confirm that the increase in the steady-state level of mAAT mRNA in response to testosterone administration results from stimulation of mAAT gene transcription and inhibition of mAAT mRNA degradation.
    • A study of the association between social functioning and manic-depressive illness in family constellations with presumed genetic vulnerability for affective illness

      Scott, Alice Malone; Ephross, Paul H. (1991)
      This exploratory-descriptive study examines the association between social functioning and subclassifications of manic-depressive illness in family constellations with presumed genetic vulnerability for affective illness. The research question is: Are there differences in the social functioning of family members with bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and their biological relatives who are not affectively ill? A study sample of convenience was drawn from the Genetic Linkage Study of Affective illness conducted at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Twenty-one bipolar I's, 22 bipolar II's, and 20 unaffected participants were included. Instruments included interviewer administered scales (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Health and Daily Living Assessment) and self administered scales (Social Adjustment Scale SR and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire). As hypothesized, findings reveal a statistically significant relationship between the diagnosis of bipolar illness and inadequate social functioning in the areas of close social relationships and overall social role adjustment. Both the bipolar I's and the bipolar II's had significantly fewer close relationships than their biological unaffected relatives. The two bipolar groups did not differ significantly from each other. When analyzed by Multiple Regression, personality as measured by the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale was found to be more highly predictive of overall social role adjustment than was the diagnosis of bipolar illness. Implications for social work and related practice in mental health settings and further research were drawn. Conceptual refinement of the global concepts social functioning within the interpersonal field and normality is greatly needed. Knowledge is lacking in the areas of nosology and the psychological and social environments which characterize individuals with subclassifications of bipolar illness. The impact of both ill and well intervals upon the family system needs to be explored.
    • An ecological approach to reducing child maltreatment

      Mann, Linda Neunlist; Goldmeier, John (1991)
      This study was conducted to determine the effect of a parent training program on maltreating parents. The program was a brief intervention, based on the ecological model of child maltreatment, using both group and class sessions and was designed to provide parenting information and knowledge. The expectation was that at the end of the twelve-week program, the parents would increase in the parenting knowledge and skills, thereby increasing their parenting abilities and decreasing the likelihood that they would abuse or neglect their children. The study used three objective instruments in an attempt to measure changes in the parents' child abuse potential, levels of depression, and appraisal of social support. More than half of the subjects dropped out of the program prior to completion and a large number of the participants did not provide valid information on the three objective measures. However, in spite of these problems, the data analysis indicated that there were significant differences between the subjects' pre- and post-test scores, suggesting that participation in the parent training program had a positive benefit for a majority of the participants. The study findings indicate that, following the intervention, the parents had reduced levels of depression, reduced levels of child abuse potential, and increased appraisals of social support. In addition, there were significant differences between the participants who completed the program and those who dropped out and between the participants who provided valid information on the measures and those who provided invalid information. The study findings can be useful for social workers who are involved in planning and designing programs for maltreating parents and the findings suggest that parent training programs can be a beneficial intervention in efforts to reduce child maltreatment.
    • Vaccinia recombinants as probes of relevant HSV-2-specific immunity

      Wachsman, Matthew; Aurelian, Laure (1991)
      Vaccinia recombinants expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) of HSV-1 (VP176) or HSV-2 (VP221) under control of an early vaccinia virus promoter or of HSV-1 under the control of a late promoter (VP254) were studied as probes for relevant immunity. The recombinants expressed comparable amounts of gD and grew equally well in vitro and in vivo VP176 immunization protected guinea pigs against primary (p {dollar}<{dollar} 0.005) and recurrent (p {dollar}<{dollar} 0.005) cutaneous HSV-2 disease, VP221 protected against recurrent disease and VP254 immunization afforded no protection. All vaccines protected mice at 10 days post infection, but VP176 gave superior protection on day 50 post immunization (p {dollar}<{dollar} 0.0001). Although neutralizing anti-HSV antibody and immunity to vaccinia antigens induced were identical, immunization with VP176 as compared to VP254 induced significantly higher levels of T-cell mediated immunity to HSV antigen as defined by lymphocyte transformation or delayed type hypersensitivity (P {dollar}<{dollar} 0.01). L3T4+ LNC from VP176 immunized animals mediated these effects and could transfer protection but required a second non-HSV immune, radiosensitive cell. Immunity induced by prior HSV-2 immunization was less effective than that induced by VP176 in terms of preventing primary disease (p {dollar}<{dollar} 0.01) and local viral replication (100 fold higher virus titers). This was associated with lower HSV-specific blastogenic and DTH response in HSV but not VP176 immune animals following HSV reexposure. VP254 but not VP176 infected antigen presenting cells failed to produce fully glycosylated gD. This defect correlated with the failure of VP254 infected epidermal or spleen cells to express gD on the cell surface or to present antigen.
    • Minority student success in predominantly white schools of nursing: Cognitive and noncognitive factors

      Rodgers, Shielda Glover; Holt, Frieda M. (1991)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of the relationship of selected cognitive and noncognitive factors to academic success of minority nursing students enrolled in predominantly white schools of nursing. In this study, the relationship between academic success (college grade point average) and the cognitive factors of high school grade point average and SAT score and the noncognitive factors of social isolation, self concept of ability, and self esteem was investigated. The theoretical framework for the study was based on Tracey and Sedlacek's model for predicting college success using noncognitive factors. Students from five NLN accredited baccalaureate schools of nursing in Virginia and Maryland participated in the study. A four part questionnaire was administered to the students which consisted of the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the modified Brookover Self Concept of Ability Scale, the social isolation subscale of the UCLA Loneliness Scale and a demographic/academic data questionnaire. The student's cumulative grade point average at the end of the semester in which data collection occurred was obtained from university officials and all other academic data was self reported on the questionnaire. There were 40 black students, 33 other minority students and 117 white students in the study. Data were analyzed using regression analysis, discriminant analysis, frequency distributions, Chi Square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Results indicated that for the total sample of nursing students, those factors which were predictive of success were self concept of ability, self esteem, and SAT scores. For black nursing students, those factors which were predictive of success were self concept of ability and high school grade point average. For other minority students the only factor predictive of success was high school grade point average. The three groups of students (Blacks, Whites, Other minorities) included in this study differed significantly on their scores on ratings of self esteem, social isolation and college grade point average. Black students had higher levels of self esteem and social isolation, but lower college grade point averages than either whites or other minorities. No demographic characteristic correlated significantly with college grade point average for either group of minority students. Black students were significantly older and more likely to be employed than either of the other two groups. The findings from this study suggest that a combination of cognitive and noncognitive factors should be explored when attempting to predict success for black students.
    • The relationships among psychological hardiness, faculty practice involvement, and perception of role stress of nurse educators

      Lambert, Clinton E., Jr.; Ruth, M. Virginia (1991)
      The primary purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional survey of nurse educators, employed full-time by a NLN accredited baccalaureate and higher degree granting school of nursing with both a graduate and an undergraduate program, was to identify if the variables, psychological hardiness, faculty practice involvement, and perceived role stress, were inter-related. An additional purpose was to determine whether there were differences between those involved in faculty practice and those not involved in faculty practice. It was predicted that: (1) the nurse educators perception of role stress would be negatively related to the level of psychological hardiness, (2) the perception of role stress by nurse educators involved in faculty practice would be greater than the perception of role stress by nurse educators not involved in faculty practice, and (3) the level of psychological hardiness of nurse educators involved in faculty practice would be greater than the level of psychological hardiness of nurse educators not involved in faculty practice. Each of 1345 identified nurse educators, whose name had been provided by the deans of 34 randomly selected schools of nursing, was requested to anonymously respond to a mailed, self-administered, pencil and paper questionnaire comprised of three instruments (Demographic Data Questionnaire, Personal Views Survey, and Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scale). A 66.5% subject response rate was obtained. Data from 871 of the respondents' questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The nurse educators perception of role stress was found to be significantly negatively correlated to the level of psychological hardiness. No significant difference was found between those involved in faculty practice and those not involved in faculty practice with respect to perception of role stress or to level of psychological hardiness. The results of this study suggest that faculty practice involvement of nurse educators in NLN accredited baccalaureate and higher degree granting schools of nursing with both a graduate and an undergraduate program is a self-selective process.
    • Factors contributing to maternal protectiveness following the disclosure of intrafamilial child sexual abuse: A documentary study based on reports of Child Protective Service workers

      Heriot, Jessica K.; Ephross, Paul H. (1991)
      This study investigate maternal protectiveness following the disclosure of intrafamilial child sexual abuse. Two questions were posed: (1) What proportion of mothers act in a protective way following the disclosure of child sexual abuse, and (2) What factors are associated with maternal non protection? Maternal protectiveness was operationalized in two ways: (1) The mother takes action to physically separate herself and her abused child from the perpetrator, and (2) she feels and acts supportively toward her sexually abused child. The study investigated fourteen factors thought to be associated with maternal non protectiveness. They were grouped in three categories: individual maternal factors, child characteristics, and factors pertaining to the mother's relationship to the perpetrator. The study also investigated the relationship between maternal belief and maternal protectiveness. The study population was drawn from substantiated cases of child sexual abuse reported to Baltimore City and County Sexual Abuse Intake Units, Division of Child Protective Services. The sample consisted of 118 mothers whose children were abused by a family member or the mother's partner with whom the mother and the child were living when the abuse was reported to Child Protective Services. At the close of the intake period, data was collected on maternal protectiveness via a questionnaire given to intake workers. The majority of mothers took action to separate themselves and their children from the perpetrator (56.8%). Two-thirds of the mothers were supportive of their sexually abused children. Fifty-two percent of the mothers both separated from the perpetrator and were supportive of their children. Mothers whose feelings toward the perpetrator were warm and accepting were more likely to be non protective than mothers whose feelings were hostile and rejecting. Mothers of seriously abused children were more likely to be non protective than mothers of less seriously abused children. In addition, mothers who abused drug and/or alcohol and mothers of children abused by a husband or boyfriend were at risk for non protection. Finally, mothers of older children were less likely to be protective than mothers of younger children.
    • Detecting critical on-line information: The relationship between nurse characteristics, computer screen designs, and computer interaction measures during laboratory results retrieval tasks

      Staggers, Nancy; Mills, Mary Etta C. (1991)
      This study focused on the match between nurse characteristics and computer interface designs during critical information detection tasks and examined: (1) which of three computer screen density levels promoted the fastest, most accurate target detection performance and greatest subjective screen satisfaction among clinical nurses, and (2) which of a set of selected cognitive and demographic nurse characteristics were related to nurses' practiced performance speed, accuracy, and subjective screen satisfaction. A conceptual framework for research in nurse-computer interaction was developed by integrating concepts from human-computer interaction, nursing informatics, and developmental psychology. The study sample was 110 randomly selected clinical nurses from an East-coast university medical center. A two-factor within subjects repeated measures analysis was used for the study's screen design section. Overall and for practiced tasks, nurses found information targets significantly more quickly on high density than moderate or low density screens during practiced tasks. Also, nurses found information more quickly on moderate versus low density screens. Nurses' mean accuracy and subjective screen satisfaction scores were essentially the same for all screen types. These results suggest increases in screen information density can result in faster performance speeds without sacrificing nurses' accuracy or screen satisfaction. Using step-wise multiple regression analyses, nurses' age, spatial memory, and spatial visualization explained 35.9% of overall performance speed and 21.5% of accuracy variance. Younger nurses with higher spatial memory and visualization abilities had faster performance speeds and higher accuracy rates. Nurses' previous computer experience represented a basement effect. Nurse characteristic predictors explained 27.8% of high density screen performance speed, 10.9% for moderate, and 22.5% for low density screens. During step-wise regression, age emerged as a significant predictor for all three screen types, and spatial memory was a significant predictor for high and low density screens. Spatial visualization emerged as a significant predictor for performance speed on high and moderate screens but not low. The set of predictors explained little accuracy during practiced tasks, 12.4%, and virtually none of the screen design satisfaction variance, 6%. These results suggest nurse educators and system designers may need to design visual aids and/or computer training to accommodate nurses' age and cognitive individual differences.
    • Rational design of controlled release matrix tablets using an ethylcellulose dispersion and fluid bed granulation technology

      Smith, Bruce Philip; Hollenbeck, R. Gary (1991)
      Application of an aqueous polymeric dispersion to control drug release from matrix tablets was investigated. The polymeric dispersion of ethylcellulose was applied as a binder in matrix tablet formulations prepared by fluid bed granulation. Examined were the effect of excipients (dicalcium phosphate, lactose, and microcrystalline cellulose), drug solubility (chlorpheniramine maleate and hydrochlorothiazide), level of water insoluble binder (5 to 30% w/w), and compression force (300 and 600 kg) on the granule and resulting tablet characteristics. These objectives were approached through the use of mixture experimental design. Examined also were the physico-chemical properties of the granules and tablets to further explain the in vitro release behavior of the different formulations. The mean particle size ranged from 85 to 700 {dollar}\mu{dollar}m and the majority of tablets possessed tensile strength values which ranged from 5 to 25 kg/cm{dollar}\sp2{dollar}. A critical assessment of the theoretical framework was tested by observing how the solubility of drug and excipient(s) changed the consolidation characteristics, porosity, and tortuosity of the matrix. Compression of the fluid bed granules into tablets was a requisite for sustained release of drug since the granules themselves rapidly released the drug. Excipients and level of binder had a major impact on the release characteristics of the tablets. In general, for tablets containing chlorpheniramine maleate higher binder levels and compression force decreased the release of drug from the matrix. In contrast, for tablets containing hydrochlorothiazide higher binder levels decreased the release of drug but the release was insensitive to compression force. Drug solubility played a disproportional role in the release rate with the more water soluble drug producing the fastest release in part due to the disruption of the matrix infrastructure. Addition of the polymeric dispersion to the raw materials, was found to decrease the mean yield value by 17 to 72% indicating increased plasticity of the granulations. The database generated from the mixture design was used to rationally fabricate matrix tablets which had a specified release rate least sensitive to compression force. This study demonstrates that a controlled release matrix system can be produced using an aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion and fluid bed granulation technology.
    • The relationship between the rewards, costs, and coping strategies of black family caregivers

      Picot, Sandra J.; Baldwin, Beverly Ann, 1941-; Rasin, Joyce (1991)
      This study was designed to describe the relationship between perceived rewards, costs, and coping strategies of black family caregivers who provided care to an elderly demented relative. Selection of coping strategies is predicated on a continuous transaction between the caregiver's appraisal of what is at stake for the caregiver in the caregiving situation and her personal resources (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980). However, research studies have suggested the caregiver's ethnicity, household income, relationship to the carereceiver, carereceiver's geographic area of residence, and the caregiving demands may serve as confounding variables. Most caregiver studies have either used predominantly white samples or treated black subjects as a homogeneous group. Therefore, the relationship of rewards, costs, and coping strategy selection with controls for the above confounding variables in an all black sample has not been done. Face-to-face interviews of 83 black female caregivers of elderly demented relatives were conducted. Coping was measured by the Jalowiec Coping Scale, rewards from the Picot Caregiver Rewards Scale, and costs from the Cost of Care Index. The demographics form included caregiver-carereceiver relationship, caregiver household income, and carereceiver geographic area of residence. The Modified Wood's Social Support Questionnaire measured the perceived quality of social support; and the Texas Research Institute of Mental Sciences Behavioral Problem Checklist evaluated caregiving demands. The seven major predictors (together) accounted for a significant amount of the overall variance in selected coping strategies, palliative emotive, confrontive active, positive thinking, problem analysis, and social support use coping. When the influences of all of the variables were removed except rewards and costs, the overall variance in palliative emotive coping, positive thinking, and problem analysis was significantly explained by rewards and costs. Caregiving demands and perceived quality of social support emerged as major predictors of total coping and social support use. Caregiver household income was a major predictor of both confrontive active and palliative emotive coping. Costs, also, predicted palliative emotive coping. Rewards were the most influential predictors of both positive thinking and problem analysis. Neither caregiver-carereceiver relationship nor carereceiver geographic area of residence emerged as significant predictors of either total coping score or individual coping strategies.