Recent Submissions

  • Call to Action for Continuum of Care in Foreign-Born Populations

    Ekwunife, Odera (2018-02)
    BACKGROUND: Continuity of care post-discharge allows for a seamless transition between the inpatient care that was received and any post-discharge care such as filling prescriptions and visiting a primary care physician. The literature to date on continuity of care has not focused on foreign-born populations who can be at risk of poor transitions following an inpatient stay. There is limited information regarding the factors that represent barriers to a successful transition from hospital to home. The objective of this pilot project is to explore perspectives on the barriers to adequate post-discharge transitional care among foreign-born patients and identify ways to improve the quality of the transition from hospital to home.
  • Graduate Research Conference 2018

    University of Maryland, Baltimore. Graduate Student Association (2018-03-15)
  • Graduate Research Conference 2017

    University of Maryland, Baltimore. Graduate Student Association (2017-04-03)
  • Determinants of College Students' Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants and Recommendations for Campus Education

    Ross, Melissa Mary; Arria, Amelia; Brown, Jessica P.; Schiffman, Jason; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; dosReis, Susan (2016)
  • Developing a 3D-Printed Peri-Implantium Based Plaque Assay (2016)

    Feldman, Steven G.; Kim, Jeffrey J. (2016-03-23)
    Objectives: Currently, there is no consensus of how to best maintain dental implants. With over 2 million dental implants placed annually, there is an urgent need for objective ways to measure plaque removal from peri-implant surfaces. Here, we developed a cost effective, fast and accurate way to measure the effectiveness of various oral hygiene products to maintain health of the implant and surrounding oral tissues using a 3D printer. Methods: Digitizations of dentoform teeth and jaws provided the basis for 3D-printed custom models. Simulated gingiva and genuine dental implants were incorporated to maximize clinical relevance. Fabricated model teeth were analyzed for consistency of cusp heights, inter-cusp distance and mass. Mass was remeasured following water immersion. An artificial plaque substrate (APS) was applied to 3D-printed and porcelain surfaces to ensure consistent performance. A standard by which toothbrush mediated APS removal from the interproximal and subgingival areas was developed, with varying brushing angle, force and toothbrush design. Results: The 3D-printed models had higher dimensional accuracy than the resolution of the 3D printer (X/Y<400μm, Z<100μm). Immersion in water yielded an increase in mass that was correlated linearly with time (r2 = .9365) and could be reversed upon desiccation. APS behaved similarly on the 3D-printed surface as porcelain. Conclusions: Lack of commercially available dentoforms with accurate dental implant anatomy limited the ability to simulate implant systems in vitro. However, the advent of low-priced commercial grade 3D printers enables individuals to create such models rapidly and at low cost. We developed highly accurate, anatomically correct, 3D-printed dental implant model systems, which mitigated flaws in extant designs and devised a high-throughput method for assessing in vitro plaque removal that is superior to existing methods. In the future, digital model files can be included in an electronic library for rapid manufacturing of identical models anywhere in the world.
  • Tissue Lipid Analysis via MALDI Imaging (MALDI-IMS)

    Feldman, Steven G.; Scott, Alison June; Ernst, Robert K. (2013-04-11)
    Mammalian tissue contains a complex array of lipids and membrane components. Analysis is typically accomplished by one of many histological methods, such as Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH). However, a limitation of most techniques is a requirement for prior knowledge of the targets of interest. Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled assays are useful for their inherent speed and accuracy. Hyphenated MS techniques, such as MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight) have been developed for rapid analysis of complex biological samples. MALDI-TOF MS lends itself to tissue slices because it does not require pure samples and can offer de novo discovery of sample components. Here we show the coupling of this technique with histological staining for the investigation of lipids and their localization within mouse kidney tissue slices. This method is shown to be extensible through the incorporation of LIFT (MS/MS) wherein a specific peak of known molecular weight is exposed to a high energy laser which causes reliable and reproducible fragmentation based on bond energies within the molecule. As such, aspects of the target molecule from a class (eg phospholipids) down to side chains can be identified allowing the fullscale investigation of major tissue components. In a proof of concept study, pure standards of the major phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were subjected to LIFT, to confirm structures. Subsequently, MALDI-IMS applied to tissue slices reveals abundant peaks in the range of predicted phospholipids. These results will be analyzed to confirm these tissue phospholipids. MALDI-TOF MS coupled with LIFT presents a novel way of looking at tissue without prior knowledge of its constituents as it allows for analysis in the absence of traditional reagents such as antibodies or nucleic acid probes.
  • Graduate Research Conference 2016

    University of Maryland, Baltimore. Graduate Student Association (2016-03-23)
  • The Role of Residential Segregation in Disparity Research: A Case Example of ADHD Diagnosis and Treatment

    Pennap, Dinci; Burcu, Mehmet; Safer, Daniel J.; Zito, Julie Magno (2015-08-24)
  • Health Insurance Status and Unmet Medical Needs Among Injured Children: A Population-Based Study

    Alqahtani, Faisal, M.D., M.P.H.; Pennap, Dinci; Alghnam, Suliman, Ph.D. (2015-10)
  • Graduate Research Conference 2015

    University of Maryland, Baltimore. Graduate Student Association (2015-03-09)
    This is the program and collection of abstracts for poster and oral presentations for the 37th Annual GRC. This conference offers researchers, be they graduate students, professional students, or postdoctoral fellows, the opportunity to present their discoveries to a diverse audience. Our unique combination of research across various professional schools and disciplines allows basic scientists, informaticists, social scientists, nurses, and policy researchers to intermingle and discuss their research in an interdisciplinary setting.
  • Characterization of Schu S4 delta aroD as a putative vaccine candidate against pulmonary tularemia

    Cunningham, Aimee L.; Santiago, Araceli E.; Mann, Barbara J., Ph.D.; Qin, Aiping; Grassel, Christen; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Barry, Eileen M. (2015-03-09)
    Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of the human disease tularemia and a Tier 1 Select Agent. There is a need for an efficacious vaccine against this pathogen due to its low infectious dose, high mortality rate, and ability to be spread by aerosol. To this end, we have engineered a defined live attenuated strain derived from the highly human virulent F. tularensis WT strain Schu S4, designated Schu S4ΔaroD; this strain lacks aroD, the 3rd enzyme in the chorismate biosynthesis pathway used for synthesis of aromatic amino acids. Schu S4ΔaroD is attenuated for growth in broth cultures and in both J774 and primary murine peritoneal macrophages, with a pulmonary LD50 > 105 CFU in C57BL/6 mice (compared to WT Schu S4 LD50 < 10 CFU). Intranasal immunization with Schu S4ΔaroD protects against high-dose WT pulmonary challenge in C57BL/6 mice. A single 50 CFU dose of Schu S4ΔaroD generated 80% protection against 100 CFU challenge, and addition of a 105 CFU booster to the initial 50 CFU vaccination is 80% and 40% protective against 500 or 1000 CFU challenge, respectively. Further studies revealed that a 103 or 105 CFU priming dose followed by a 108 CFU boost is 100% protective against 1000 CFU WT Schu S4 pulmonary challenge. This level of protection has not previously been demonstrated by any tularemia vaccine candidate. Bacterial burden following i.n. vaccination found that regardless of initial dose, immunized mice show identical bacterial loads (107 CFU/g tissue in the lung and 105 CFU/g tissue in the liver) at the peak of infection. However, time to peak burden was dose-dependent, as animals receiving a higher initial inoculum (at least 5600 CFU) reach this peak at day 3, as opposed to day 7 in lower initial inoculum groups. Peak bacterial burden correlates with maximal associated histopathology in the liver and peak pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in lungs, liver, and spleen (TNF-α, IL-1β, Cox-2, KC, iNOS, MCP-1). Our study shows Schu S4ΔaroD serves as an efficacious defined live attenuated vaccine against pulmonary tularemia. We have revealed a dose-dependent response to Schu S4ΔaroD, which may help determine the protective capacity of this vaccine and assist in development of vaccine-associated correlates of protection in the mouse model.
  • Exome sequencing from extreme responders to aspirin identifies a novel variant associated with platelet aggregation

    Backman, Joshua David; Ning, B.; Lou, W.; Perry, James; Shi, L.; Lewis, J.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. (2015-03-09)
    Objective: To identify novel variants that may significantly impact platelet response to aspirin and DAPT (Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy).
  • Barriers to Providing And Receiving Adequate Services for Latinos in a New Immigrant Settlement Destination

    Goodman, Marci; Maskell, Erin; Negi, Nalini (2015-03-09)
    AIMS 1. Explore social service providers' experiences serving Latinos in the social and cultural context of Baltimore. 2. Identify service gaps in social service provision for Latino Immigrants in Baltimore BACKGROUND INFORMATION Baltimore is a new immigrant settlement destination. Latinos are the fastest rising ethnic group in Baltimore with census data indicating a doubling of the population from 11,061 in 2000 to 25,960 in 2011. While social service delivery is highly critical in the maintenance of the health of vulnerable populations, little is known about the context of social services in new immigrant settlement destinations. METHODS Social service providers who work with Latino immigrant clients were recruited using purposive theoretical sampling. In--depth qualitative interviews were then conducted and audio recorded and later transcribed. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE Providers are stretched very thin, as few providers work with limited resources to provide support for a growing number of Latinos: Participants rely on networking and collaboration for strength; Participants report feeling a "sense of duty" to serve the Latino community. More support is needed: Recruitment, training, and retention of Spanish speakers in various health science and service oriented programs is crucial; A focus on curriculum development is needed to better prepare future providers for culturally sensitive practice with Latino immigrants. Continued outreach by Baltimore City: This will help to develop trust with the Latino immigrant community.
  • Risks Factors for Colorectal Precancerous and Cancerous Lesions in HIV-infected Patients

    Yimgang, Doris; Magder, Laurence S.; Stafford, Kristen Alyce; Fisher, Lydia H.; Cullen, Nicole R.; Riedel, David J.; Kang, Minji; Innis, Ellen K.; Wang, Elizabeth W.; Riner, Andrea N.; Fantry, Lori E. (2015-03-09)
    Although data are conflicting, some studies suggest that HIV-infected patients may have a higher risk for colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between known and potential HIV specific risk factors on the incidence of precancerous and cancerous lesions found on colonoscopy in HIV-infected individuals. This is a retrospective analysis of clinical data collected on 263 HIV-infected patients.
  • Regulators of Hematopoietic Progenitor Differentiation

    Baldeosingh, Rajkumar; Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy (2015-03-09)
    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must be capable of both self-renewal and production of progenitor cells that give rise to all of the blood cell types, the two basic principles of stem cell biology. Investigations into gene networks controlling HSC response to stress have been conducted using model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster. One of the factors controlling vertebrate HSC multipotency and differentiation is the GATA:FOG complex. GATA:FOG complexes regulate the development of a number of blood lineages. In Drosophila, the GATA:FOG complex blocks the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors into the stress-responsive lamellocyte lineage. Drosophila hematopoietic progenitors are strikingly similar to HSCs and are used as a model for these vertebrate stem cells. We used fly genetics to identify GATA:FOG network members that block the stress-response of hematopoietic progenitors.

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