Now showing items 1-20 of 1725

    • Racial/Ethnic Identity as a Factor of Academic Resilience in Female Black and Hispanic Undergraduate College Students Attending a PWI

      Miremadi-Baldino, Delvina D.; Ward, Janie (2013-04-12)
      This research explores the gap between Black and White and Hispanic and White student degree attainment in predominately white institutions (PWI). The cost associated with each individual who fails to matriculate and attain their degree is significant for the individual, the institution and for society as a whole. The purpose of this study was to explore the risk and protective factors associated with the Black and Hispanic undergraduate experience, as well as the multiple ways in which students’ perceptions of their sense of racial/ethnic identity contribute to the specific protective mechanisms that buffer the effects of exposure to risk and foster students’ academic resiliency. For this study, phenomenology research methodology allowed Black and Hispanic students to describe their perceptions of the undergraduate college experience at a PWI. Data collection methods included in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured, interviews with eleven undergraduate college students. Findings indicate that Black and Latina students experience a variety of risk and protective factors that can positively or negatively impact their identity, academic resilience and success as a student. Data results highlight the importance of a po sitive Racial/Ethnic Identity as an important protective factor for academic success. Analysis revealed that Isolation and a Lack of Sense of Belonging and Isolation, Racism and Microaggressions, and Financial Difficulties were among the most significant challenges faced by the students. The protective mechanisms of family, group and peer support, internal purpose and goals, and identity duality proved to be the most salient protective factors that contribute to student perseverance. This research revealed important insights associated with increasing positive college experiences for Black and Hispanic undergraduate students. Implications and recommendations for improving institutional commitments to these student populations will be highlighted and discussed.
    • Exploring Child Welfare Placement Pathways to Residential Treatment Settings: A Three Paper Dissertation

      McCarthy, Lauren; Lee, Bethany R. (2022)
      Residential treatment settings (RTS) provide access to services in a safe environment for child welfare involved youth with behavioral health challenges. Despite the potential benefits of RTS, there are concerns that have led to legislation aiming to reduce their use. Policy that aims to reduce the use of RTS should be informed by an understanding of how youth enter RTS. This three-paper dissertation aimed to increase our understanding of how youth placement histories are related RTS entry in the context of youth behavior and development using secondary analysis of state administrative child welfare data. This dissertation also aimed to understand how caregivers experience accessing mental health care for youth through interviews. The first paper explored aggregate patterns of placement transitions and individual factors associated with risk of RTS entry. Findings include that transitions are most likely to occur between similar types of placement settings and that developmental period at first entry to out-of-home care is associated with RTS entry. The second paper explored the presence of unobserved subgroups of child welfare involved youth based on placement histories and whether youth move through these groups over time. The second paper found two subgroups of placement histories, multiple placements in group settings and stability in family care settings. The second paper further found that child behavior and developmental period at first entry to care were associated with group membership and transitions. The third paper identified that caregivers gain empowerment in decision making when accessing mental health services, but that this empowerment declines when accessing acute inpatient services. The third paper further found that accessing RTS was a challenging journey that impacted caregiver well-being, and that the decision to place a child in RTS came following a safety inflection point. Implications include that youth who enter out-of-home care in pre- and early adolescence and their caregivers may require additional support to remain stable in family placement settings. Further implications include the need to improve caregiver access to knowledge about the mental health care system to improve empowerment when making decisions and more resources for acute mental health service settings.
    • Effectiveness of Human and Machine-based Counseling: Opportunities for Employee Assistance Programmes

      Attridge, Mark (2022-09-06)
      This presentation offers key findings from research. Survey data from EAPs in the USA (N=351) in year 2021 and from South Africa (N=28) in year 2022 is compared in this presentation. Part 1 examines the effectiveness of human counseling conducted using technology access modalities. Part 2 examines the effectiveness of machine or robot counseling tools using technology. Part 3 discusses opportunities in embracing the role of technology in the future of EAPs. Traditional live counseling can benefit from the integration of machine-based tools for mental health risk screening and prevention. Also, as these techno-tools focus exclusively on the individual user, they completely ignore the workplace. Thus, EAPs should re-emphasize the unique role that they can play in supporting the workplace – beyond just supporting the worker.
    • Mental Health Promotion and Suicide Prevention in the Workplace: Policy and Response Recommendations to Help Employers Positively Impact Workers and the Work Environment: A White Paper for HR Professionals and Employment Lawyers

      Workplace Suicide Prevention and Postvention Committee; Dever, Laurie; Gabor, David; Walker, Michelle; Frey, Jodi J; McClatchey, Mary; Morrissey, John W.; Quiray, LeiLani; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Thakkar, Sejal; et al. (United Suicide Survivors International, 2022-09-01)
      A White Paper for HR Professionals and Employment Lawyers: Executive Summary: In the United States, roughly 50,000 people die by suicide each year, most of whom are of working age. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), one in five adult Americans lives with a mental health condition every year. While rates for diagnosed mental health conditions vary by demographic, conditions like anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders are quite common. Yet few workers will get the support they need to establish healthy levels of well-being. In fact, a systematic review on suicide help-seeking reported that only 40% of adults aged 18 and older sought help for their suicide thoughts or behavior. Psychologically unsafe workplaces that are not friendly to mental health contribute to the gap between the need for support and help-seeking behavior. The failure of workplaces to address psychological safety negatively impacts employees and often leads to challenges with employee engagement, absenteeism, presenteeism, morale, and safety and error concerns. Of course, the worst outcomes of unaddressed workplace mental health challenges are deaths by suicide, overdoses, and the consequences of addiction. All of these challenges lead to significant ramifications for the employer and coworkers, including turnover and increased costs. Conversely, proactive investment in mental health promotion and suicide prevention offers the employer a strong ROI (Return on Investment). Contrary to popular expectation, more than half of people who died by suicide did not have a known mental health condition. Beyond depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders, environmental contributors can also drive suicidal despair. These factors include workplace bullying and discrimination, relationships, physical health issues, and financial, legal, or housing stress. For employers, this means a broad approach to the mobilization of resources is appropriate—more than just a referral to the Employee Assistance Program (EAP). The focus of this white paper is to help employers recognize and navigate the complex issues of how best to support employees living with mental health conditions and suicidal intensity and to understand the policy and legal precedent surrounding best practices for prevention, intervention, crisis response, and postvention.11 It is written by practitioners and researchers who represent subject matter expertise from three different perspectives: legal, human resources, and mental health. Employers are becoming increasingly aware of mental health and suicide concerns in their workforce, yet most have not been prepared on how to respond. Managers and HR professionals are vital gatekeepers for recognizing individuals who are at risk of suicide and aiding those who need help. Many workplaces and professional associations look to human resources and employment lawyers for guidance on prevention, intervention, crisis response; and postvention, yet these professionals are often working under misguided assumptions and outdated information. The truth is that proactive investment in mental health promotion and suicide prevention is not only the right thing to do, but also the strategy that will result in a positive ROI for the organization and will help mitigate risk for the company. For important information on the Department of Labor’s Guidelines for Mental Health Conditions and FMLA, see Appendix A or visit
    • Support for Children and Adolescents With ADHD, Behavioral and Learning Difficulties, and Neurodevelopmental Conditions

      Carroccia, Gene (EAPA, 2022-07)
      Parents, healthcare providers, and EA professionals can become easily confused by complex presentations of child and adolescent neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and learning difficulties. Many do not know where to start. Should they request school testing, psychiatrist examinations, or child therapist sessions? When not adequately addressed, the challenges can escalate, parental mental health may deteriorate, and substance misuse can occur. To add to the complexity and gravity of the challenges is the fact that there is a significant and persisting increase in requests for child and adolescent services. EAPs are being challenged to better support the many children, teens, and families suffering and struggling.
    • Bereavement Sessions: An Opportunity for EAPs

      Carton, Bob (EAPA, 2022-07)
      It’s a human trait to eschew thoughts of our natural, ultimate end. People are often more comfortable talking about extraordinary dramatic ends, as they are unlikely to happen to them. This innate reluctance to consider death for oneself or for employees leaves HR, managers, and corporate leadership challenged in the wake of an employee death. With the lack of protocols in the workplace and no other allied counseling professionals to provide workplace support, this is an opportunity for EAPs to make a difference. Bereavement assistance within the worksite is a distinguishing and valuable service a qualified EAP can provide.
    • Finding a New Job via Social Media After a Layoff

      Lobel, Kylie Ora (SHRM, 2022-08-30)
      When employees were let go from a job in the past, they would usually search for a new position fairly quietly, not sharing publicly what had happened. But as layoffs start to emerge in the current economy, fewer people are being shy about sharing their situations online. Some have even learned to reap benefits from going public about career setbacks.
    • Surviving High School Transfers: A Multilevel Study of Student and School Characteristics Related to School Transfer, Graduation, and College Entry

      de Tablan, Dante; DeForge, Bruce R. (2022)
      Background: Transferring schools frequently happens across the United States from kindergarten to college. While student mobility studies have focused more on elementary and middle school grades, research at the high school level is limited. In addition, studies on transfer during high school related to postsecondary education are even more scarce. This dissertation investigates transfer risk associated with student and school characteristics and its association with high school graduation and college enrollment. Method: The dissertation used analytic samples from a cohort of 6,810 first-time ninth graders enrolled in Baltimore City Public Schools from 2012-2013 to 2017-2018. To examine the factors related to college entry, a second analytic sample included only students who obtained a high school diploma, a certificate of completion, or a GED (N = 4,297). The study employed mixed-effects parametric proportional hazards modeling to investigate student- and school-level characteristics associated with time to the transfer event, and multilevel binary logistic regressions to analyze student and school factors related to odds of high school graduation and college enrollment. Results: Thirty-four percent of students transferred schools during the study period. White students, those with missing 8th-grade math test scores, students who received a suspension, and employed students were at a reduced risk of transfer. Chronic absentees and those with standardized 8th-grade math scores had increased transfer risk. While the school percentage of students eligible for free and reduced meals related to a reduced transfer risk, the school special education rate was associated with increased transfer risk. Transferring schools was associated with lower odds of graduation and college entry, and percentage of school transfer was associated with lower odds of college enrollment. Transfer, as it related to graduation and college entry, varied across schools. Conclusion: School transfer is a multidimensional event related to adverse educational outcomes for many students. This dissertation identified student and school characteristics associated with time to transfer risk. Moreover, the study highlighted the adverse effects of transfer on graduation and college entry. Finally, a discussion of the limitations, strengths, and implications for research, policy, and practice are presented.
    • Employers Are Poised to Expand Mental Health Coverage in 2023: Challenges include men's reluctance to seek care, racial barriers, parity compliance

      Miller, Stephen (SHRM, 2022-08-22)
      Employers enhanced their mental health and well-being benefits for employees during the COVID-19 pandemic and are poised to continue expanding these offerings in 2023, new research shows. Even so, challenges in accessing care remain for many employees. Survey results released in August by AHIP, a health insurers' trade association formerly known as America's Health Insurance Plans, highlight how health plans are improving access to mental health (also called behavioral health) services by bringing more high-quality providers into their networks and helping patients find available mental health appointments.
    • Changes in Gun Laws Affect the Workplace

      Shepherd, Leah (SHRM, 2022-08-18)
      Laws governing firearms at the workplace have shifted toward a more permissive stance, while the U.S. Supreme Court has recognized a constitutional right to carry firearms outside the home and Congress has passed a new gun safety law. Given all the recent changes, employers may wish to review their policies and consider whether changes or additions are needed. The key is to strike a balance between upholding individuals' gun rights and protecting the safety of all employees and customers.
    • Perceived Need for Care and Mental Health Service Use: The Moderating Effect of Race/Ethnicity and Military Veteran Status among a Population-based Sample of U.S Adults

      McNish, Nicole Latoya; Bright, Charlotte Lyn (2022)
      Background: Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) adults and military veterans are susceptible to chronic and severe mental illness given their higher likelihood of exposure to risk factors compared to the general population. Despite the consequences of untreated mental illness and federal initiatives aimed at expanding healthcare access, treatment utilization among both groups remains low relative to treatment need. Research has found significant racial and ethnic differences in perceived need for care (PNC) and severity of psychological distress, important antecedents of treatment seeking. However, the extent to which these factors apply to veterans has not been widely examined. Using the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use (Andersen, 1995) and Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations (BMVP, Gelberg et al., 2000), this dissertation aimed to address these gaps in the existing literature given their significance to ongoing research, policy, and intervention efforts. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 43,026). Binary logistic regression was used to examine the associations of PNC and symptom severity with mental health service use among veterans and nonveterans of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds with interaction terms for race/ethnicity and veteran status. Results: PNC and symptom severity are associated with higher probabilities of mental health service use. However, there are differences in the adjusted probabilities in mental health service use favoring White nonveterans. Veteran status moderates these associations such that the probabilities of mental health service use were stronger for veterans than nonveterans who reported PNC, except for Asian veterans. Conclusions: Veteran status moderates some longstanding racial and ethnic disparities in mental health service use. Further research is needed, particularly among Asian veterans, to identify factors that contribute to lower probability of mental health service use in comparison to White adults, and to identify ways to leverage the effectiveness of interventions employed among veterans in support of other vulnerable groups.
    • How the Laborers got involved in Substance Abuse Recovery

      McCann, Bernard A. (2008-09)
      This presentation outlines the Member Assistance Program (MAP) created for the Laborers' International Union of North America, Local 210, a union of construction workers.
    • Understanding Grief And Guiding Clients Toward Healing

      Akins, Diane (2022-08)
      Grief is the anguish experienced after a significant loss, usually the death of a beloved person. Grief may also take the form of regret for something lost, remorse for something done, or sorrow for a mishap to oneself. This presentation was offered to mental health professionals to assist in their work with employees in the workplace.
    • Crossing State Lines: How Credentialing and Licensure Impacts EA Practice

      McCann, Bernard A. (EAPA, 2022-07)
      One of the major innovations in EA practice (and healthcare in general) has been the explosive growth in telehealth and online health delivery platforms. Although gradually emergent over the past decade, use of these virtual mechanisms exploded during the COVID-19 pandemic. This increased use of telemedicine and mobile applications has generally been seen as a remedy to improve the accessibility and reach of health services. In the United States, aspects of medical and mental health delivery have been regulated by over 50 independent jurisdictions. As a result, they are characterized by considerable geographic variation with respect to insurance coverage, access to/cost of care, health status, and standards of professional practice. With the onset of the pandemic, the demand for telehealth services was so acute that it forced the easing of previously restrictive requirements. This easing allowed mental health clinicians in many areas to practice teletherapy across state lines, regardless of where the client and provider were physically located. This previously guarded professional service delivery apparatus has become an evolving issue in the US health care system, with many lobbying for less restrictive regulation of telehealth across jurisdictional boundaries.
    • Repositioning EAPA for the Future

      McCann, Bernard A. (EAPA, 2020-11)
      To ensure it endures and enhances its role as the leading advocate and voice of the EA profession well into the future, in early 2019, EAPA contracted with the Open Minds behavioral healthcare consulting organization to complete an association repositioning research and technical assistance project. The effort sought through investigations by member surveys, online and social media research, and interviews of EAPA Board members, staff, partner organizations, and representatives of employers, labor unions, behavioral health providers, and benefit consultants to provide a comprehensive, wide ranging view of the EAP-related professional association landscape. The overall goal of the project was to assist in “Positioning EAPA as the leading advocate, expert and resource on employee assistance and workforce well-being, productivity and engagement for employers, labor organizations, and EA professionals”.
    • Cultural Competence in Healthcare: Why it Matters to Reduce Health Disparities

      Smedley, Joseph (Vital Worklife, 2022-07-18)
      The United States of America has been a kaleidoscope of cultures for hundreds of years. In urban areas it is not unusual for a doctor to have a diverse patient lineup–seeing a patient in the morning who recently emigrated from the Philippines, a multi-generational family of Indian descent later in the afternoon and a tourist from China in the evening might be a typical day for some in the healthcare profession. Even doctors and nurses who work in rural areas will inevitably encounter people of various ethnicities and cultural backgrounds in their careers, especially as the U.S. countryside continues to become more ethnically and racially diverse. Sensitivity, compassion, understanding and acceptance of patients and colleagues with different values, beliefs and behaviors are essential qualities for those who work in the medical arena. Cultural competence is the ability of healthcare providers and organizations to meet the cultural, social and linguistic needs of their patients. Below, you will find why cultural competence is so important for the effective delivery of quality healthcare, and we’ll look at how a lack of cultural competence can lead to poor patient satisfaction and outcomes and frustration for both patients and healthcare workers. It is also important for healthcare facilities to attain cultural competence through in-house training and education for nurses, doctors and other healthcare workers.
    • How top-tier EAPs are helping parents address their children’s post-COVID mental health issues

      Greer, Kathleen; Romano, Stephen (Employee Benefit News, 2022-06-21)
      More than half of U.S. children and teens are struggling with mental health issues after the pandemic. As if that number wasn’t troubling enough, only 8% are likely to get help. The reasons are many: Self-stigma. Little understanding of what to do or where to turn. Limited access to aid. Fortunately, therapists, Employee Assistance Programs and other mental health providers are expanding their services and reaching out to younger populations. However, it is difficult to deliver widespread counseling to children in an epidemic of need. One path that is proving to be successful is to also provide support for those closest to youngsters — their parents.
    • Integrate DEI with your EAP to Positively Impact Workplace Culture and Well-Being

      Ramsey, Kiki (WorldatWork, 2022-06-01)
      With all the racial and social unrest the country has experienced over the last several years, the concepts of diversity and inclusion have made their way into every conference room meeting, Zoom call, and agenda. Unfortunately, there’s been a lot of baggage and politics attached to these terms, diminishing their meaning and utility. Once we remove this tattered layer of misunderstanding, we’ll see these words for what they really are — core values and virtues. For organizations hoping to effect a change in organizational culture and employee well-being, investing in diversity and inclusion promises that plus a golden key to progress, financial success, innovation and longevity. And the best way to connect the dots of the abstract concepts of diversity and inclusion and the reality of success is to integrate leadership coaching with the resources of a top-tier employee assistance program (EAP). This approach inspires professional development for leaders and meaningful change throughout the organization.
    • How to Face the Great Resignation in Healthcare

      DeChant, Paul (Vital WorkLife, 2022-06-20)
      The healthcare industry is no stranger to the phenomenon of The Great Resignation. Since 2020 alone, 18 percent of healthcare workers have quit their jobs, with many surveys indicating 20-50 percent of physicians and nurses stating they’re ready to quit in the next year. In this article, Dr. Paul DeChant, a VITAL WorkLife Consultant and an internationally recognized expert on clinician well being outlines the six drivers of this crisis, how the COVID-19 pandemic played a role, and important strategies for how leaders can face this head on.