• The Business Case for Workplace Critical Incident Stress Response: A Brief Review of the Research Literature.

      Attridge, Mark (Crisis Care Network, 2009-07)
      Critical Incident Stress Response (CISR) services are often included as part of employee assistance programs (EAPs) and thus CISR services are available now to millions of workers. Most employers and researchers today recognize the overall business value or return on investment (ROI) for EAP services. Many employers, however, provide access to CISR services just because it is the “right thing to do.” Nonetheless, in the process of personal recovery, there can also be other outcomes that benefit the organization financially. This paper reviews the research literature on the business value that can be achieved when organizations offer CISR services.
    • Centering Black Lives: Exploring Oral Histories of Legacy African American Women in the Black Belt to Heal the Wounds of Racialization as Justice

      Sermon, Michelle Crowder; Negi, Nalini; 0000-0002-8542-1941 (2022)
      Narratives of unresolved racialized injury among Legacy African American(s) (LAA) women in the rural US south, or the Black Belt, offer meaning to observed disparities and healing to the contemporary and future lives of LAA in Black Belt communities. This dissertation study considered LAA women’s layered exposures to racialized adverse live experiences (ALE)/traumas with historical, cultural, intergenerational, race-based, and complex traumas, and the impact of this multidimensional trauma perspective, on wellness outcomes for rural African Americans. Adverse mental and physical health conditions among LAA are critically disproportionate in this population yet current research and treatment protocols to address these disparities are based in a Eurocentric worldview. For example, race is often examined in research as a demographic category without fully conceptualizing the impact of racialization. By applying the Black Lives Matter Healing Justice framework, this study centers the Black experience and aims to elucidates the relationship between racialization and ALE/trauma through the voices and lived experiences of LAA women in the Black Belt, captured in archived oral histories. Employing thematic, critical constructivist, and historical discourse analysis, this study also sought to reveal the language of racialized trauma, expressed in the archived oral/life histories of LAA women sharing their ALE of Jim Crow segregation and racial integration in the Black Belt. Findings suggest that Race-Place-Space collectively served as the foundation of the gendered and racialized experiences of this population. Relying on my personal reflective experiences as a LAA Black Belt woman and an assembled research advisory panel (RAP) as well as theory and extant literature, I discuss the meaning of Race-Place-Space, racialized trauma, and healing justice. Contributions and implications to social work practice and research are presented along with suggestions for future directions in research and practice centering the Black perspective.
    • Critical Incident Response for Workplace Violence

      Attridge, Mark; VandePol, Bob (2011-08)
      Critical incidents involving workplace violence are sudden, unexpected, often life-threatening time-limited events that can inhibit an individual’s capacity to respond adaptively. This report summarizes the extent of the problem, the psychological aspects of trauma from workplace violence, how it is treated through critical incident response services, and the business value of providing a proper response and prevention strategy.
    • EAP and COVID-19 2021: Tools 2 Thrive: Outreach Toolkit

      Mental Health America (Mental Health America, 2021)
      During the past year, we at Mental Health America have witnessed an unprecedented increase in the numbers of people experiencing mental health problems. In November 2020, the CDC reported that 44 percent of us were dealing with either depression or anxiety. While historically data shows us that 1 in 5 adults will experience a mental health problem, these days it certainly feels like it’s 5 in 5. Nearly 3 million people have taken an MHA mental health screening during the past twelve months. A million were experiencing depression and hundreds of thousands more were experiencing either anxiety or psychosis. Young people are bearing the brunt of the pandemic, but these mental health impacts cross all generations. But let us not only focus on dark facts. Let’s shine a little light in the darkness .This year’s Mental Health Month toolkit – based once more on the theme of Tools = 2 Thrive (especially during a pandemic) – will help us do just that. Six topics comprise the toolkit – Adapting After Trauma and Stress, Processing Big Changes, Getting Out of Thinking Traps, Radical Acceptance, Taking Time for Yourself, and Dealing with Anger and Frustration. Together, these tools help us develop and employ the resiliency that will take us to brighter days.
    • Effective Treatment for Trauma – Skills for EA Professionals

      Draper, Corinne; Brown, Ingrid (2022-04-10)
      This is a presentation out of the Rocky Mountain EAPA Chapter focused on Trauma. The presentation explores the following definitions of trauma and then applies them to clinical applications. 1) Trauma is a person’s emotional response to a distressing experience. Unlike ordinary hardships, traumatic events tend to be sudden and unpredictable, involve a serious threat to life—like bodily injury or death—and feel beyond a person’s control. Most importantly, events are traumatic to the degree that they undermine a person's sense of safety in the world and create a sense that catastrophe could strike at any time. 2) Trauma is specifically an event that overwhelms the central nervous system, altering the way we process and recall memories. “Trauma is not the story of something that happened back then, it's the current imprint of that pain, horror, and fear living inside people.” 3) Trauma is in the nervous system, not in the event.
    • Exploration of cross-cultural adaptability of PTSD among trauma survivors in Northern Iraq, Thailand, and the Democratic Republic of Congo: Application of item response theory and classical test theory

      Michalopoulos, Lynn Theresa Murphy; Cornelius, Llewellyn Joseph, 1959- (2013)
      Background: There has been an ongoing debate in the trauma field regarding the validity of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as a construct among trauma-affected populations displaced from or living in non-Western, low and middle income countries. Some researchers argue that PTSD is a Western construct that is only relevant in Western settings, while others assert that PTSD may be a universal concept. Purpose: To determine if there are a core set of PTSD symptoms that are applicable across three non-Western low and middle income countries (LMIC). Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted from baseline, screening and validity studies among torture survivors in Northern Iraq, sexual violence survivors in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and Burmese survivors of mass human rights violations in Thailand. Item response theory (IRT) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to explore core PTSD symptoms. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the best fitting model for the whole sample was a 4-factor "numbing" model (with effortful avoidance, arousal, numbing and intrusion factors). Results from the multidimensional IRT rating scale model indicated four core items across the whole sample. Accounting for multidimensionality with the "numbing" PTSD model, the four items were from the effortful avoidance and arousal domains. Results revealed that seven items demonstrated differential item functioning were from the re-experiencing, numbing, and arousal domains. All items demonstrated statistically significant differential item functioning but small to moderate effect size. Conclusions: Core items found across the three countries are indicative of culturally relevant items that are concrete in nature, as well as relatively easy to measure and operationalize. The small effect size in the potential DIF items suggests that there is little meaningful/clinical difference of the items across country for general screening of PTSD symptoms. However, in clinical settings where a specific assessment for culture is developed or utilized, DIF items should potentially be accounted for and analyzed as having item bias. In general, findings suggest that measurement PTSD has universal as well as country-specific aspects.
    • First Responders: Behavioral Health Concerns, Emergency Response, and Trauma

      United States. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 2018-05)
      This issue of the Supplemental Research Bulletin focuses on mental health and substance use (behavioral health) concerns in first responders. It is estimated that 30 percent of first responders develop behavioral health conditions including, but not limited to, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as compared with 20 percent in the general population (Abbot et al., 2015). In a study about suicidality, firefighters were reported to have higher attempt and ideation rates than the general population (Stanley et al., 2016). In law enforcement, the estimates suggest between 125 and 300 police officers commit suicide every year (Badge of Life, 2016). First responders are usually the first on the scene to face challenging, dangerous, and draining situations. They are also the first to reach out to disaster survivors and provide emotional and physical support to them. These duties, although essential to the entire community, are strenuous to first responders and with time put them at an increased risk of trauma. The purposes of this publication are to discuss the challenges encountered by first responders during regular duty as well as following disasters; shed more light on the risks and behavioral health consequences (such as PTSD, stress, and depression) of serving as a first responder; and present steps that can be taken to reduce these risks either on the individual or institutional levels. Those who are among the first to respond to a disaster are referred to by different terms, depending on whether the speaker and audience are part of federal government, state and local government, or other entities, and they may not be clearly defined at all. According to Title 6—Domestic Security of the U.S. Code, first responders include these individuals and groups: The term “emergency response providers” includes Federal, State, and local governmental and nongovernmental emergency public safety, fire, law enforcement, emergency response, emergency medical (including hospital emergency facilities), and related personnel, agencies, and authorities (Domestic Security, 2010). The terms “first responders” and “public health workers” (the term used in some papers) are somewhat arbitrary; the terms include police, firefighters, search and rescue personnel, and emergency and paramedical teams (Benedek, Fullerton, & Ursano, 2007). For the purpose of this publication we will concentrate on three major groups that will be discussed separately—whenever possible—or combined under the term first responders: Emergency medical services (EMS) • Firefighters • Police officers This issue of the Supplemental Research Bulletin is based on literature and scientific publications found through the National Center for Biotechnology Information and U.S. National Library of Medicine (PubMed). All research cited in this issue was published in English, and most was conducted in the United States (with a few exceptions where investigations in other countries proved useful to the topic). We did not include literature on trauma related to military service, as the challenges and types of danger and training are different. We also did not include literature on nontraditional first responders because the literature was not robust.
    • Flight Attendants: Coping with Trauma

      Hunkeler, Enid M.; Healy, Heather; Giunta, Nancy; Groebe, Jennifer; Langston, Donna; Mendelson, Daniel
    • Helping Employees Cope with the Death of a Co-Worker

      Hirsch, Arlene S., 1951-  (SHRM, 2022-06-23)
      Helping employees cope with the death of a colleague or co-worker is not typically covered in leadership training or employee handbooks. However, the pandemic and other public health crises have prompted many organizations to create policies that address the needs of grieving employees while still achieving business outcomes.
    • How Employee Assistance Programs Can Help Your Whole Company Address Racism at Work

      Frey, Jodi J (Harvard Business Review Press, 2020-10-14)
      It may surprise some employers to know that when employees experience racism and/or other forms of discrimination and oppression, one of the places they can turn for help is their Employee Assistance Program or EAP. While EAPs are thought of more often for use by employees for short-term counseling and referrals to help employees manage personal problems so that they don’t interfere with work performance and productivity, it is important to remember that EAPs also provide workplaces with services including organizational assessment, management consultation and strategic crisis prevention and response. It is precisely because of this mix of individual and organizational level of services that EAPs are in a unique position to help employees work through the trauma of racism and to provide workplace leaders with an invaluable insider view of complex workplace problems, including racism.
    • Managing Change: Making the Most out of Change

      Norton, Bob (2018-03-28)
      Having experienced some traumatic changes these past two years, many of us are now faced with the prospect of returning to our campuses for the first time in a long time. That’s good news. Nonetheless our return is a big change from the teleworking that most of us have become adjusted to. For some this change may bring a sense of anxiety and apprehension marked by uncertainty about what to expect, such as new safety protocols, hybrid working schedules, the possibility of contracting COVID from co-workers, and — for those hired during the pandemic — meeting co-workers in person for the first time. Being mindful of the host of feelings experienced by everyone returning to campus — from excitement to apprehension — is important in facilitating a smooth transition to the newly structured world of work.
    • Mothers Engaging in Street-Level Prostitution: A Lived Experience

      Bailey-Kloch, Marie; Shdaimah, Corey S. (2019)
      Abstract Title of Dissertation: Mothers Engaging in Street-Level Prostitution: A Lived Experience Marie G. Bailey-Kloch, Doctor of Philosophy, 2019 Dissertation Directed by Corey Shdaimah, PhD, Professor, School of Social Work This dissertation is a qualitative study with mothers who engage in street-level prostitution. Using a phenomenological approach, this study explored how respondents understand their roles as mothers who engage in street-level prostitution and how these two identities co-exist. The aim of the study was an examination of the way motherhood is understood and explained by the women themselves. The purpose was to understand the way women who engage prostitution construct and define motherhood and how they feel about themselves by eliciting their stories through a phenomenological lens. Six mothers engaging in street-level prostitution were interviewed; a second in-depth semi-structured interview was conducted with five of these. After an analysis employing an interpretive phenomenological approach (IPA), three themes emerged from the data: addiction, perseverance and motherhood. All the respondents met the criteria for the DSM 5 diagnosis of severe substance use disorder. They had the resilience to survive in spite of a lack of resources and enduring trauma. They all believed they had qualities of being a “good mother” even if that meant not living with their children. These findings may help to structure programs that may help influence whether they will seek services to improve the quality of their own lives and the lives of their children. Current programs delivering services to mothers engaged in street-level prostitution, such as substance abuse treatment and diversion programs, do not always recognize the significance to their women participants of being identified as a mother. The insights and perspectives of study respondents regarding their lived experience provides guidance to improve policy and programs that deliver services to mothers who engage in street-level prostitution.
    • SAMHSA's Concept of Truama and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach

      Huang, Larke N.; Flatow, Rebecca; Biggs, Tenly; Afayee, Sara; Smith, Kelley; Clark, Thomas; Blake, Mary (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 2014-07)
      This manual introduces a concept of trauma and offers a framework for becoming a trauma-informed organization, system, or service sector. The manual provides a definition of trauma and a trauma-informed approach, and offers 6 key principles and 10 implementation domains.
    • Supporting Employees Through Trauma: Social Workers in the Workplace & Employee Assistance

      Frey, Jodi J; Bryant-Nickens, Tanya (2020-11-18)
      This webinar was presented by Dr. Jodi Jacobson Frey and Tanya Bryant-Nickens for the University of Maryland, Baltimore, School of Social Work. Both presenters are proud alums of the School and Dr. Frey currently chairs the Social Work in the Workplace and Employee Assistance Sub-specialization at the School. Their presentation uses a fireside chat approach to discussing timely and critical topics related to supporting employees through trauma and the role of Employee Assistance, workplace leaders, and other workplace mental health and well-being stakeholders. The presenters address upstream, midstream and downstream approaches to preventing and responding to trauma and provide resources for attendees to learn more. Additional information is presented about the unique sub-specialization offered by the School and how alumni and friends of the program can get involved through supporting students and programming that advance the field and profession.
    • Trauma and substance use disorder: Recovery begins with embracing our pain and taking the risk to share it with others

      Caldwell, Trish (2021)
      This is a presentation that was given at the Rocky Mountain EAPA Chapter in the latter part of 2021. The goals of this particular presentation were: To be able to define traumatic stress and Substance Use Disorder. To provide information on the effects of substance use and trauma on brain functioning. To understand the different types of trauma and the components of trauma-informed care. To develop a basic understanding of effective treatments for people with traumatic exposure and substance use.
    • A Treatment Improvement Protocol: Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services

      United States. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (United States. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014)
      Many individuals who seek treatment in behavioral health settings have histories of trauma, but they often don’t recognize the signifi­cant effects of trauma in their lives; either they don’t draw connec­tions between their trauma histories and their presenting problems, or they avoid the topic altogether. Likewise, treatment providers may not ask questions that elicit a client’s history of trauma, may feel unprepared to address trauma-related issues proactively, or may struggle to address traumatic stress effectively within the con­straints of their treatment program, the program’s clinical orienta­tion, or their agency’s directives. By recognizing that traumatic experiences and their sequelae tie closely into behavioral health problems, front-line professionals and community-based programs can begin to build a trauma- informed environment across the continuum of care. Key steps include meeting client needs in a safe, collaborative, and compas­ sionate manner; preventing treatment practices that retraumatize people with histories of trauma who are seeking help or receiving services; building on the strengths and resilience of clients in the context of their environments and communities; and endorsing trauma-informed principles in agencies through support, consulta­ tion, and supervision of staff. This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) begins by introducing the scope, purpose, and organization of the topic and describing its intended audience. Along with defining trauma and trauma- informed care (TIC), the first chapter discusses the rationale for addressing trauma in behavioral health services and reviews trauma- informed intervention and treatment principles. These principles serve as the TIP’s conceptual framework.
    • "we'll take the tough ones": Expertise in problem-solving justice

      Leon, Chrysanthi S.; Shdaimah, Corey S. (University of California Press, 2019-11-01)
      Expertise in multi-door criminal justice enables new forms of intervention within existing criminal justice systems. Expertise provides criminal justice personnel with the rationale and means to use their authority in order to carry out their existing roles for the purpose of doing (what they see as) good. In the first section, we outline theoretical frameworks derived from Gil Eyal’s sociology of expertise and Thomas Haskell’s evolution of moral sensibility. We use professional stakeholder interview data (N = 45) from our studies of three emerging and existing prostitution diversion programs as a case study to illustrate how criminal justice actors use what we define as primary, secondary, and tertiary expertise in multi-agency working groups. Actors make use of the tools at their disposal—in this case, the concept of trauma—to further personal and professional goals. As our case study demonstrates, professionals in specialized diversion programs recognize the inadequacy of criminal justice systems and believe that women who sell sex do so as a response to past harms and a lack of social, emotional, and material resources to cope with their trauma. Trauma shapes the kinds of interventions and expertise that are marshalled in response. Specialized programs create seepage that may reduce solely punitive responses and pave the way for better services. However empathetic, they do nothing to address the societal forces that are the root causes of harm and resultant trauma. This may have more to do with imagined capacities than with the objectively best approaches.