• 20 Years of EAP Cost-Benefit Research - Part 3 of 3: Taking the Productivity Path to ROI

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2010-10)
      The final article in a three-part series of outcomes in employee assistance in 20 years since pioneering applied research study by internal EAP program at McDonnell Douglas Corporation in the United States. This article reviews large-size studies (N > 26,000; N >59,000; N > 3,500) that measured improvements in work absenteeism and work productivity by users of EAP counseling. The main idea is that rather than emphasizing the potential for healthcare cost savings derived from small part of EAP cases that are more high risk (for alcohol/drug or psychiatric disorders) - as was examined in the McDonnell Douglas study and called the "pareto path" to value - it makes more sense to focus on the large percentage of EAP cases that have workplace-based cost savings form reduced absenteeism and restored productivity after counseling.
    • The 5th US/Canada Forum on Mental Health and Productivity: Reference Report of Presentations and Proceedings

      Attridge, Mark; Lackey, Helen; McIntyre, Roger S.; Ricciuti, Joseph; Wilkerson, Bill, 1942- (Mental Health International, 2014-01)
      This report provides detailedi nformation on the content of the 5th US/Canada Forum on Mental Health and Productivity in 2013. The full-text of each of the presentations delivered at the Forum is included here in this report as edited transcripts based on the audio recording of the event. Other content is presented concerning the key themes from the discussion that occurred during the meeting and select ideas captured in the comments and interviews obtained after the meeting from the panel of experts. Other related source material from the Forum is also provided in the appendices to this report.
    • The Aging Workforce and EAPs

      Kreuch, Tony J. (Employee Assistance Professionals Association, 2007-11)
      The Employee Assistance Professionals Association's Standards and Professional Guidelines for Employee Assistance Programs states that EAPs are "worksite-based programs designed to assist (1) work organizations in addressing productivity issues, and 2) 'employee clients' in identifying and resolving personal concerns, including , but not limited to health, marital, family, financial, alcohol, drug, legal, emotional, stress or other personal issues that may affect job performance." The EAP Core Tchnology, meanwhile, emphasizes the need for EAPS to assist work organizations in a variety of contexts to enhance the overall health, well-being, and performance of the workforce. Implicit in these definitions is the notion that effective EAPs are capable of adapting to the changing needs of an organization based on shifts in resource allocations, workforce demographics, and organizational goals. One emerging need relates to the "graying" of the workforce and specifically the imperative for work organizations to accommodate this change. Work organizations are being challenged to modify their traditional views of older workers and to re-examine long-held stereotypes and beliefs regarding older workers.
    • Answering 10 Questions: EAP Reports Should Answer 10 Basic Questions that Drive Purchaser Expectations About the Value of Employee Assistance Services.

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2007-07)
      Strategic discussion of best practices in collecting data, conducting analyses and presenting results of annual utilization for employer customers of employee assistance program services.
    • Behavioral Health: A Key to Work Force Productivity

      Sullivan, Sean, J.D. (2017-01-17)
      This webinar is Part 2 in a series of webinars initiated by Employee Assistance Practice Based Research Network in response to their initial white paper, Bridging Public Health with Workplace Behavioral Health Services: A Framework for Future Research and a Stakeholder Call to Action (Bennett et al., 2015). The title of the series is The Future of Workplace Behavioral Health Research. This particular webinar is Behavioral Health: A Key to Work Force Productivity, with speaker Dr. Sean Sullivan, JD, Co-Founder and President of the Institute for Health and Productivity Management (IHPM). This presentation highlights the business case for more attention to behavioral health problems that take a larger economic toll on employers than the more obvious expenses of chronic medical conditions like diabetes and heart disease. It identifies an opportunity beyond traditional health and wellness to define and measure the emerging concept of “wellbeing” as having the greatest potential impact on health, quality of life and productivity. This webinar series is designed to broaden and deepen the conversation about EAP and Workplace Behavioral Health Services research and collaborations that can mutually benefit all service providers and those they serve.
    • Building Emotional Resilience at the Workplace: A HealthPartners Case Study

      Lloyd, Karen D., 1951-; Katz, Abigail S.; Pronk, Nicolaas P. (American College of Sports Medicine, 2016-01)
      NTRODUCTION Stress happens, and it happens to everyone. If workers do not have emotional resilience skills and habits to help support them during these times, their productivity declines. Work-related requirements such as precision and accuracy, problem solving, interpersonal communications, as well as speed and quality of work output will suffer. This general state may be considered part of presenteeism, which is typical when workers are demoralized, distracted, overwhelmed, or otherwise not coping well with stress. It is important to note that the stressors may be from work-related or personal issues, but frequently, stress in one sphere is accompanied by stress in the other. The good thing is that skills to maintain emotional resilience are effective across all settings, and these habits get stronger with use.
    • The Business Value of EAP: A Conceptual Model

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Bjornson, Tom; Goplerud, Eric N.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; McPherson, Tracy L.; Paul, Rich; Routledge, Sandra; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Stephenson, Diane; et al. (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2010-05)
      This Research Note describes how to conceptualize the different ways that employee assistance services provide business value to an organization. The model features three major categories or levels of value: Workplace Performance Value – which has cost savings from employee productivity, absence and other human capital areas; Benefit Cost Value – which has cost savings from health care, disability and other employee benefits; and Organizational Value – which has cost savings from risk management and improved organizational development.
    • The Business Value of Employee Assistance: A Review of the Art and Science of ROI (EAPA 2013 Keynote Address)

      Attridge, Mark (2013-10-19)
      Dr. Attridge reviews the science, strategies and future trends influencing the business value of employee assistance program (EAP) services. The talk opens by examining the empirical evidence relevant to the return on investment (ROI) for workplace behavioral health services. Over 1,000 individual research works now exist globally that support various aspects of the business case, including dozens of studies specifically on the outcomes and cost-offset value of EAP services. Next, the themes from this research are used to formulate different strategies for making the business case for EAP. Four conceptual models – called the Primary, Pareto, Productivity, and Partnership approaches to value – are each described and illustrated with data examples. These approaches work best when combined into a more comprehensive model that reflects the mix of services delivered by the EAP. Finally, several "big-picture" trends are identified in the areas of technology tools, outcome measures, healthy workplace culture and technology. These trends offer important new opportunities for increasing the business value of EAPs. Reference List included.
    • Case study: EAP outcomes and impact 2018

      CuraLinc Healthcare, 2018
      CuraLinc measured the health and productivity of 3,379 benefit-eligible employees who used the EAP between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2017. CuraLinc's case managers offered the SPS-6 and WOS to all employees; and offered the PHQ-9 and AUDIT to those who presented with depression and alcohol use, respectively. CuraLinc followed up with participants 30 days after the cased was closed to measure changes in their health and productivity, evaluate their satisfaction with the program and profiled for variations in health status or referrals to other resources. In summary, the data collected by CuraLinc suggests that an EAP with the proper construct and focus can facilitate meaningful behavior change that correlates to a decrease in absenteeism, an increase in productivity and a direct impact on a client's bottom line. The data also suggests that an EAP does have the ability to improve the health of employees who present with depression or alcohol use problems.
    • Case study: EAP outcomes and impact 2019

      CuraLinc Healthcare, 2019
      CuraLinc measured the health and productivity of 5,761 benefit-eligible employees who used the EAP between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2018. CuraLinc's case managers offered the SPS-6 and WOS to all employees; and offered the PHQ-9 and AUDIT to those who presented with depression and alcohol use, respectively. CuraLinc followed up with participants 30 days after the case was closed to measure changes in their health and productivity, evaluate their satisfaction with the program and profile for variations in health status or referrals to other resources. In summary, the data collected by CuraLinc suggests that an EAP with the proper construct and focus can facilitate meaningful behavior change that correlates to a decrease in absenteeism, an increase in productivity and a direct impact on a client's bottom line. The data also suggests that an EAP does have the ability to improve the health of employees who present with depression or alcohol use problems.
    • Case study: EAP outcomes and impact 2020

      CuraLinc Healthcare, 2020
      CuraLinc measured the health and productivity of 7,040 benefit-eligible employees who used the EAP between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2019. CuraLinc's case managers offered the SPS-6 and WOS to all employees; and offered the PHQ-9 and AUDIT to those who presented with depression and alcohol use, respectively. CuraLinc followed up with participants 30 days after the cased was closed to measure changes in their health and productivity, evaluate their satisfaction with the program and profiled for variations in health status or referrals to other resources. In summary, the data collected by CuraLinc suggests that an EAP with the proper construct and focus can facilitate meaningful behavior change that correlates to a decrease in absenteeism, an increase in productivity and a direct impact on a client's bottom. line. The data also suggests that an EAP does have the ability to improve the health of employees who present with depression or alcohol use problems.
    • Construction industry series: Fading Away - Construction Leaders Speak Out About Mental Health

      Gruttadaro, Darcy; Beyer, Cal (Matrix Group Publishing, 2020)
      Organizations depend on a healthy workforce to stay competitive in their industry and mental health is no exception. It wasn’t long ago when a person s psychological well-being wasn’t discussed at the office, but now, more than ever, managers in the construction sector are taking on a leadership role when it comes to addressing the overall well-being of their employees. Our well-being depends on where we fall along a mental health continuum that extends from feeling mentally healthy and well on one end to experiencing distress with a diagnosed mental health condition on the other. For most people, their mental health continuously shifts and evolves along that continuum depending on many factors. Behavioral health is the term most often used to describe both mental health and substance use conditions. Mental health impacts how people think, feel, and act so it’s easy to see how it affects work performance, productivity, retention, health, quality, and safety. For employers, the opportunity to improve workplace mental health exists at organizational and individual levels. Mental health conditions are common, impacting one in five, or close to 47 million U.S. adults. About 20 million adults also experience a substance use disorder. And while treatment works, less than half of people who need help actually get it.
    • Construction industry series: The Human and Financial Costs of Behavioral Health in Construction

      Beyer, Cal; Spoor, Leia (Matrix Group Publishing, 2021)
      Prior articles in this series have explained the construction industry’s challenges with mental health, substance misuse, and suicide risk before and during the pandemic. These factors are an “invisible crisis in construction.” These issues were problematic in construction before COVID- 19 but the pandemic has worsened the mental health stress and financial pressures among workers which, in turn, has increased behavioral health risks among the workforce and their families. Similarly, behavioral health challenges pose risk to all construction stakeholders. There are some telltale warning signs, including the rising risk of near hits and/or serious injuries and fatalities (SIFs) on jobsites. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2019 the construction industry experienced 1,066 workplace fatalities, the highest number since 2007. Moreover, among all industries, unintentional overdoses due to nonmedical use of drugs or alcohol increased for the seventh consecutive year.
    • Do You Know What An EAP Is?

      Narine, John (2021-11-08)
      When I was in active addiction, I would be continuously absent from work. And when I finally gathered myself enough to make it in, my work performance and behavior significantly declined. My boss did the best she could to guide me towards getting help for my addiction, while constantly assessing how willing I was to seek out the help myself. However, her main focus was on my work performance and related behavior. And after seeing no true progress being made in that area, she finally asked Human Resources to step in. Through private conversation, HR made the suggestion that I call our assigned EAP (Employee Assistance Program) provider. HR said that the EAP would give me free counseling sessions and assist me with any additional help that I may need. My HR representative would periodically check on whether I’d called and would promote their usefulness; however, never did they specify the confidentiality I would have. I was skeptical to take their suggestion, I told myself: If my employer is suggesting that I call this number, well… what information are they going to relay back to my employer? If I ask my employer about what my confidentiality rights are, are they going to wonder why I am asking about confidentiality? Will that raise more questions and suspicion?
    • EAP and COVID-19: COVID-19 Changes Needn’t be Negative

      Antonissen, Dirk (EAPA, 2021-01)
      Nearly twenty years ago, former EAPA CEO John Maynard wrote in this magazine: “Employee Assistance is the application of knowledge about behaviour and behavioural health to make accurate assessments, followed by appropriate action to improve the productivity and healthy functioning of the workplace” (Maynard, 2004). Indeed, two decades later, improving the productivity and healthy functioning of the workplace remains a challenge – even more so in light of COVID-19 restrictions in which remote work (telework) has become the new workplace standard. Telework marks a radical change for many employers and employees, and this certainly includes Europe. But change does not have to be negative. Notwithstanding all the troubles that COVID-19 brought to workplaces, many employees seem to appreciate some of the adaptations that came with lockdown and obligatory home and telework.
    • EAP and SAP: Similar but not the same

      Cagney, Tamara (2013-01)
      The relationship between employee assistance professionals and substance abuse professionals is something akin to cousins. They share the same roots and many branches of the same family tree but these are very different roles. Those outside the family sometimes confuse these functions and even practitioners can under estimate some of the conflicts that arise between the two roles.
    • EAP Business Case Research: Human Capital Outcome Metrics

      Attridge, Mark (2005-08-10)
      This presentation provides an overview of research that examines the business case and outcomes from employee assistance and work/life services. The presentation has four areas. Part 1. EAP Business Value Model; Part 2. Integration Trends and Models; Part 3.Role of Partners in Driving Value; and Part 4. Measurement Implications
    • EAP Effectiveness and ROI

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Bjornson, Tom; Goplerud, Eric N.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; McPherson, Tracy L.; Paul, Rich; Routledge, Sandra; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Stephenson, Diane; et al. (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2009-10)
      This Research Note reviews the results of studies examining the level of user satisfaction, the general effectiveness of EAP core services and the financial return on investment (ROI) for employee assistance programs.
    • EAP Impact on Work, Stress and Health: National Data 1999-2002

      Attridge, Mark (2003-03)
      This project brings together applied naturalistic research data to assess the impact of employee assistance program (EAP) services on employee work, stress, and health. Clinical and follow-up self-report survey data from one EAP company (Optum®) is analyzed representing four large national samples (N > 1000 cases randomly selected each year for 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002). Results show that the majority of EAP clients report improvements in their work productivity and avoided absenteeism, stress, overall health and well-being and daily functioning after use of the service. The findings are found consistently in each year’s data and thus provide replication of results. Financial estimates of workplace outcomes are provided.
    • EAP Industry Outcomes for Employee Absenteeism and Presenteeism: A Global Research Analysis

      Attridge, Mark (2016-11-02)
      This study standardized the results from a variety of different client- and clinician-rated measures of work absence and work productivity that were collected at pre and post use of the EAP. This super dataset represents the experiences of over 240,000 individual employees users of EAP counseling over 20 years of service delivery from 20 different EAPs in six countries (Australia, Canada, China, Netherlands, South Africa and the United States). The change in absenteeism showed a reduction in work absence from an average of 13.04 hours per case per month before EAP to 6.44 hours during the most recent month at follow-up after use of EAP counseling. For presenteeism, the average employee user of the EAP was functioning at a 64% level of productivity during the month before use of the EAP (on a 0-100% scale; with the typical “healthy” employee at 84%). But this initial rather severe deficit changed to a more normal level of 79% when assessed several months later at follow-up after completing EAP counseling. When using a standard full-time work schedule of 160 hours a month and adjusting the total time at work for absence hours when not at work at Pre and Post periods, this level of unproductivity is equivalent to a total of 52.9 hours of presenteeism before use of the EAP and 32.3 hours after the use of EAP. When absenteeism and presenteeism are combined, the month before use of EAP was 66.0 hours and the month after at follow-up was 39.7. This is a difference in which the typical EAP counseling case experienced 27.25 hours less of lost productive time (i.e., 6.6 fewer hours of missed work (absenteeism) and 20.7 fewer hours of lost productive time while at work (presenteeism) per month after use of the EAP). Note that presenteeism accounts for about 80% of the 27.2 total hours of restored work productivity after EAP counseling. Preventing 3.4 days of lost productivity per month is a substantial outcome considering that the true effect of EAP counseling is several times larger taking into account that the typical course of clinical distress if untreated could extend for a period of several months with varying levels of severity and associated work impairment.