• Building Emotional Resilience at the Workplace: A HealthPartners Case Study

      Lloyd, Karen D., 1951-; Katz, Abigail S.; Pronk, Nicolaas P. (American College of Sports Medicine, 2016-01)
      NTRODUCTION Stress happens, and it happens to everyone. If workers do not have emotional resilience skills and habits to help support them during these times, their productivity declines. Work-related requirements such as precision and accuracy, problem solving, interpersonal communications, as well as speed and quality of work output will suffer. This general state may be considered part of presenteeism, which is typical when workers are demoralized, distracted, overwhelmed, or otherwise not coping well with stress. It is important to note that the stressors may be from work-related or personal issues, but frequently, stress in one sphere is accompanied by stress in the other. The good thing is that skills to maintain emotional resilience are effective across all settings, and these habits get stronger with use.
    • Comparing Improvement After EAP Counseling for Different Outcomes and Clinical Context Factors in Over 16,000 EAP Cases Worldwide

      Attridge, Mark; DeLapp, Gregory P.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; Ihnes, Pamela; Jacquart, Mike; Lennox, Richard; London, Marina; Servizio, Lou; Sharar, David A., 1961- (2017-09-15)
      The Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) is an easy-to-administer tool developed by Chestnut Global Partners (CGP) Division of Commercial Science. It uses a short, precise, and easy-to-administer survey that collects EAP specific outcome data both before (pre – at start of the counseling) and after (post – usually after 3 months) EAP services. Thus, the WOS is a measure of change that examines five key aspects of workplace functioning: absenteeism, presenteeism, work engagement, workplace distress, and life satisfaction. The WOS is currently the only publicly available, free instrument that has been psychometrically validated and tested for use in EAP settings. See the 2016 WOS Report for a discussion of how it is administered, basic calculation methods for change over time, and the history of the development of the full 25-item, 9-item and brief 5-item versions.
    • Do EAPs Work?

      Attridge, Mark (Health Enhancement Research Organization, 2019-02-12)
      General Theme of Conference: Psychological Safety at Work: What Happens When More Voices Are Heard? The presentation reviews empirical studies to answer the following six questions of interest to employers: Q1 = How many employers have EAPs? Q2 = Why are EAPs needed? Q3 = Why do employers buy EAP? Q4 = Who buys EAP? Q5 = Where is the evidence on EAP Effectiveness? Q6 = How do companies get their EAP to be more effective?
    • Do You Know What An EAP Is?

      Narine, John (2021-11-08)
      When I was in active addiction, I would be continuously absent from work. And when I finally gathered myself enough to make it in, my work performance and behavior significantly declined. My boss did the best she could to guide me towards getting help for my addiction, while constantly assessing how willing I was to seek out the help myself. However, her main focus was on my work performance and related behavior. And after seeing no true progress being made in that area, she finally asked Human Resources to step in. Through private conversation, HR made the suggestion that I call our assigned EAP (Employee Assistance Program) provider. HR said that the EAP would give me free counseling sessions and assist me with any additional help that I may need. My HR representative would periodically check on whether I’d called and would promote their usefulness; however, never did they specify the confidentiality I would have. I was skeptical to take their suggestion, I told myself: If my employer is suggesting that I call this number, well… what information are they going to relay back to my employer? If I ask my employer about what my confidentiality rights are, are they going to wonder why I am asking about confidentiality? Will that raise more questions and suspicion?
    • EAP Industry Outcomes for Employee Absenteeism and Presenteeism: A Global Research Analysis

      Attridge, Mark (2016-11-02)
      This study standardized the results from a variety of different client- and clinician-rated measures of work absence and work productivity that were collected at pre and post use of the EAP. This super dataset represents the experiences of over 240,000 individual employees users of EAP counseling over 20 years of service delivery from 20 different EAPs in six countries (Australia, Canada, China, Netherlands, South Africa and the United States). The change in absenteeism showed a reduction in work absence from an average of 13.04 hours per case per month before EAP to 6.44 hours during the most recent month at follow-up after use of EAP counseling. For presenteeism, the average employee user of the EAP was functioning at a 64% level of productivity during the month before use of the EAP (on a 0-100% scale; with the typical “healthy” employee at 84%). But this initial rather severe deficit changed to a more normal level of 79% when assessed several months later at follow-up after completing EAP counseling. When using a standard full-time work schedule of 160 hours a month and adjusting the total time at work for absence hours when not at work at Pre and Post periods, this level of unproductivity is equivalent to a total of 52.9 hours of presenteeism before use of the EAP and 32.3 hours after the use of EAP. When absenteeism and presenteeism are combined, the month before use of EAP was 66.0 hours and the month after at follow-up was 39.7. This is a difference in which the typical EAP counseling case experienced 27.25 hours less of lost productive time (i.e., 6.6 fewer hours of missed work (absenteeism) and 20.7 fewer hours of lost productive time while at work (presenteeism) per month after use of the EAP). Note that presenteeism accounts for about 80% of the 27.2 total hours of restored work productivity after EAP counseling. Preventing 3.4 days of lost productivity per month is a substantial outcome considering that the true effect of EAP counseling is several times larger taking into account that the typical course of clinical distress if untreated could extend for a period of several months with varying levels of severity and associated work impairment.
    • EAP Outcomes, Critical Incident Effectiveness Measures and EAP Product Extension

      DeLapp, Gregory P.; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Attridge, Mark; Veder, Barb; Antonissen, Dirk (2018-10-12)
      KEYNOTE ADDRESS. During this moderated panel-session we will examine the value of our industry working towards a set of globally standardized workplace evaluation tools, including the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS), the recently validated version of the WOS for workplace critical incident response - The Critical Incident Outcome Measure (CIOM), and a new organizational level measure of the effectiveness of EAP supports to workplace - the Short Inventory of Stress and Well-being tool from Europe. Additionally, this session will address the rationales for designing and incorporating these tools into your books of business.
    • EAP Works: Global Results from 24,363 Counseling Cases with Pre-Post Data on the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS)

      Attridge, Mark; Sharar, David A., 1961-; DeLapp, Gregory P.; Veder, Barb (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
      The Workplace Outcome Suite© (WOS) is a self-report instrument designed to evaluate the effectiveness of employee assistance program (EAP) counseling services from the perspective of the employee user of the service. More than 30 EAPs collected longitudinal data on all versions of the WOS from 2010 to 2018 and voluntarily submitted their raw data to Chestnut Global Partners for analysis. The 24,363 employees in this aggregated sample represent 26different countries, but most of the cases were from the United States (79%) and China (15%). The typical EAP case in this data set was a female, age 38, and was a self-referral into an external vendor of EAP services seeking help for a mental health concern. Outcomes were collected at the start of counseling and again approximately three months later. Evidence of the psychometric validity and test-retest reliability for all five WOS measures was found in correlational tests. Other tests of the change in outcomes from before to after use of EAP counseling found large effects on work presenteeism and life satisfaction (ηp2= .24 and .19), a medium-size effect on work absenteeism (ηp2= .13), and small effects on both workplace distress and work engagement (ηp2= .05 and .04). Although most EAP cases had no absence from work either before counseling or at follow-up (58% and 78%, respectively), the average amount per case per month of missed work due to the personal concern was reduced from 7.4 hours before to 3.9 hours after use of the EAP. Weak findings on moderator tests determined EAP counseling was effective to a similar degree on WOS outcomes across contextual factors of client age, sex, country, referral type, clinical concerns, industry of the employer, and delivery models for providing employee assistance counseling (i.e., external vendors, internal staff programs and hybrid models). As an alternative to the fill-in-the-blank response format requiring a specific number of hours, a modified version of the work absenteeism single item is offered that has a 5-point scale with normative levels of absence hours obtained from the Pre EAP use global data that define each of the 1-5 rating options. More details and related findings are presented in the Workplace Outcomes Suite 2018 Annual Report from Chestnut Global Partners.
    • EAPA and COVID-19: Absenteeism and Presenteeism – Two Things that Should Matter to Every Organisation

      EAPA - South Africa (2021-01-04)
      It is likely that you have heard the terms ‘absenteeism’ and ‘presenteeism’ spoken of as two of the barometers of employee-wellbeing, but do you understand the serious connotations of high levels of absenteeism or presenteeism and how much of an impact these workplace issues can have on an organisation? They go far beyond employees calling in sick too often or taking chunks of time out, while at work, to deal with personal matters.
    • EAPs correlate to positive workplace outcomes

      Sharar, David A., 1961-; DeLapp, Gregory P. (Employee Assistance Advisor, 2016-12-20)
      Study using EAP benchmarking tool demonstrates efficacy of programs/services in reducing absenteeism, presenteeism, workplace distress, increased engagement and job satisfaction.
    • EAPs Have Never Been So Important to Employees

      Greer, Kathleen; Quick, John (Arizent, 2021-02-17)
      Since COVID hit, EAPs have been under pressure to bring proven methods of treatment to the forefront. Over the past 10 years, there have been rigorous studies that have shown that top-tier EAPs can help to reduce presenteeism and provide positive clinical outcomes for employees and their family members. Quality and scope of EAPs vary so it is important to work with full service EAPs that will help to integrate other employee benefits into a seamless help center.
    • Follow the Data: New Study Correlates EAP to Positive Workplace Outcomes

      Sharar, David A., 1961-; DeLapp, Gregory P. (2016-12-20)
      Study using EAP Benchmarking tool demonstrates efficacy of programs/services in reducing absenteeism, presenteeism, workplace distress, increased engagement and job satisfaction
    • Integration Insights Column #7: Implications of Pricing for EAP Integration and ROI

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2017-01-01)
      This article explores the implications of a financial budget devoted to EAP services and how it either promotes or limits, the opportunities for creating effective partnerships and key integration. I summarize key points from my EAP Talks keynote presentation on the Organizational Health Map conceptual model at EAPA’s 2016 World EAP Conference in Chicago.
    • Longitudinal Outcomes of the Face to Face EAP Counseling Services in Greece on Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS): Hellas EAP 2016

      Mazouropoulou, Christina; Attridge, Mark (2017-05-17)
      This presentation shares the research results of employee users of face-to-face counseling provided by Hellas EAP in Greece during the year 2016. Data from 110 cases was compared at before counseling and after a longitudinal follow-up (about 3 months). The five components of the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) for EAPs were analyzed for change over time. Significant improvements were obtained on all five outcomes. The greatest degree of change was found for employee presenteeism. These results for the EAP in Greece are comparable with other worldwide benchmark data for the WOS. When the average improvements in employee absenteeism hours and level of work presenteeism were combined, the amount of lost productive time per month per employee was reduced from 8.9 days to 4.4 days. A new analysis method examined the change in the percentage of cases who were at the "Problem Level" on each of the WOS measures. All five measures also showed significant reductions in the number of cases at a problem level from before to after use of the counseling.
    • Measuring Coaching Effectiveness: Validation of the Workplace Outcome Suite for Coaching

      Lennox, Richard; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Miller, Francine J. (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
      Chestnut Global Partners developed the coaching version of the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) to measure the effectiveness of coaching interventions in helping to address a range of workplace issues. For this purpose the original 25-item version of the WOS, developed in 2009, was slightly modified to provide outcome information on the coaching process. While the changes were modest, there was some concern that they might adversely affect the psychometric characteristics of the 25-item tool compromising its validity and reliability. Prudence requires the coaching version of the WOS be evaluated to assure results are equivalent with those of the original WOS. Data from 309 clients, provided with disease management coaching services for depression and diabetes, were analyzed. Various methods, including reliability analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlational studies, were included in the study. The results of these analyses showed that the coaching tool performed slightly better than the original WOS. The instrument was shown to be extremely reliable, particularly for a short scale. The analysis revealed that the 25-item coaching version of the WOS can be used to test the efficacy and effectiveness of a coaching program without concern for significant measurement error. Results suggest that psychometric studies of the original 25-item WOS can also reflect clinical change from the workplace health programs coaching version even with samples as small as 50 clients.
    • Presenteeism and Health: Exploring the Link Between Employee Productivity and Common Physical and Mental Health Issues

      Attridge, Mark; Rosenberg, Tomas; Otis, Jim; Lynch, Wendy, Ph.D.; Riedel, John, M.P.H., M.B.A.; Sullivan, Sean, J.D. (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2001-03)
      This study explored how health issues impact self-reported employee productivity. Survey and clinical archival data were obtained from national samples of employees who had voluntarily used a telephonic nurse information service (N = 4,789) or a telephonic behavioral counseling service (N = 1,050; both services by Optum from year 1999). A typical employer can have about 1 in every 10 employees use these kinds of health services in a one-year period. The results indicated that employees were about 30 percent less productive when first calling for assistance with health issues than after they had used the services. The results of regression analyses showed that productivity level at the time of first use of the health service could not be predicted to a useful extent from available demographic and clinical measures. The majority of employees reported positive health improvements (daily activities, stress, and overall well-being) after using the services. These health improvements were positively correlated with self-reported productivity gains. The bottom-line impact for employers is that these kinds of health issues are common and they involve significantly lower productivity during the health episode.
    • Research On Return-On-Investment: Which Models of EAP Are Generating the Most Significant ROI?

      Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Attridge, Mark (EAP Technology Systems, 2010-03)
    • Return on Investment (ROI) Analysis of Employee Assistance Program: Employer Case Study of Piraeus Bank

      Attridge, Mark; Chasapogianni, Evi (2017-05-17)
      Keynote presentation of a successful employer case study and R.O.I. estimation analysis from the implementation of the EAP program in 2016 at Piraeus Bank. Analysis featured actual EAP utilization data, EAP user outcomes and employee and business cost data from the client organization. Results of 4.31:1 (euro) ROI for the overall EAP program, with the majority (67%) of the total cost savings coming from outcome area of restored employee and manager lost productive time at work after use of EAP counseling. Similar ROI results were obtained for years 2014 (4.87:1) and 2015 (5.73:1).
    • Study: EAP Works Across Cultures and Borders

      Sharar, David A., 1961-; Mollenhauer, Matthew; Heck, Paul W. (Employee Assistance Professional Association, 2016-11)
      A Recent study created by Chestnut Global Partners in partnership with DuPont demonstrated positive results from the Workplace Outcome Suite-5 (WOS-5) in more than 80 countries worldwide.
    • Validation of the 5-item Short Form Version of the Workplace Outcome Suite ©

      Lennox, Richard; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Goehner, David B.; Shmitz, Eileen (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
      This article reports on the validation of the WOS-5 an abbreviated version of the Workplace Outcome Suite© (WOS). For reasons of efficiency and ease of delivery the field was looking for an abbreviated version of the original WOS tool. In this new abbreviated version four of the 5-items correspond to latent variable measures of presenteeism, work engagement, life-satisfaction and workplace distress. These items were selected based on highest factor loading from the original confirmatory factor analysis in the 25-item WOS development study. The fifth item is the single measure of absenteeism created using a formative measures model to count total hours missed by collapsing the total and partial days absent from work. Correlation evidence indicates the 5-item WOS to be a good measurement representation of the 25-item version. Test of sensitivity for three versions of the WOS (WOS-5, WOS-9, and WOS-25) showed the 5-item version to provide comparable sensitivity to change from various EAP service interventions from our pooled dataset. The newly constructed single absenteeism measure for the 5-item scale was shown to be the most sensitive of the various measures, even outperforming the 25-item version. The advantage, while small, was statistically reliable. Together, these results suggest that the 5-item WOS can be used to approximate the 25-item version without excessive loss of reliability, validity or sensitivity.
    • Why CFOs Should Stop Worrying and Learn to Love EAP/Wellness

      Servizio, Lou (2017-01-15)
      Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are often the go-to resource for at-risk employees grappling with personal problems -- substance abuse, depression, stress, marital strife, etc. These programs have gained popularity among employers as a preventative or early intervention measure, allowing employees to address personal issues before they escalate into larger -- and far costlier -- health problems. Despite serving as the primary entry point for over 150 million American workers seeking professional support, short-term counseling and referrals for any personal or behavioral health concern, many EAPs continue to serve employees without knowing or improving upon their workplace impact – until recently. There is increasing recognition amongst EAP providers that in order to continue to thrive, the EAP field needs to be able to measure and demonstrate effectiveness in quantifiable business terms.