• Considerations for Providers of Health Coaching Programs: To Build or Buy

      Slovenski, Sean; Elias, Walter; Attridge, Mark (Hummingbird Coaching, 2009)
      As the demand from employers increases for purchasing health coaching services, more specialty and ancillary service companies are getting into the business of offering health coaching, including disease management companies, employee assistance programs (EAPs), third party administrators of health care claims (TPAs) and even some health plans. The concern with this trend, however, is how well prepared these various companies are to create and deliver high quality health coaching services in a cost effective manner. The choice facing providers who want to offer health coaching services is either to buy the service from another provider and resell it a part of their other services or else to build it internally as their own product. This “build or buy” question is difficult to answer because there are many aspects to consider for each option. This question is examined through a review of research and business literature.
    • Cost Effectiveness Studies Literature Review

      Masi, Dale A. (Masi Research Consultants, Inc., 2001-11)
    • Critical Incident Response for Workplace Violence

      Attridge, Mark; VandePol, Bob (2011-08)
      Critical incidents involving workplace violence are sudden, unexpected, often life-threatening time-limited events that can inhibit an individual’s capacity to respond adaptively. This report summarizes the extent of the problem, the psychological aspects of trauma from workplace violence, how it is treated through critical incident response services, and the business value of providing a proper response and prevention strategy.
    • Critical Incident Response Updated Literature Review

      Herlihy, Patricia A. (2021-04-01)
      During the last ten years there have been numerous mass casualty events (MCE) in the United States including: the San Bernardino shooting; Las Vegas shooting, Pulse Nightclub shooting; Pittsburgh Synagogue shooting; Dayton Ohio shooting; Parkland School shooting and; more re- cently, the Atlanta shootings targeting Asian Women. In addition, there have been unprecedented high-profile/high intensity crisis events that have impacted the Nation, such as the Covid 19 Pan- demic, the civil unrest following the death of George Floyd, and the assault on the US Capitol Building on January 6, 2021. Historically, incidents as buildings collapsing, train and bus colli- sions, plane crashes, earthquakes and other large-scale emergencies like the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 and the September 11 attacks in 2001 are further well-publicized examples of mass casualty incidents. Finally, in addition to these major newsworthy incidents there are daily events that require Disruptive Event/CIR interventions such as: robberies, layoffs/downsizing, and deaths in the workplace. In response to both the larger MCEs and the more “routine” daily interruptions, employers have begun to take a more proactive stance to anticipate and prepare their workers for potential disruptions of any size in the workplace. In all these cases, the continuity of business and organizational operations have been severely disrupted. Such events can be viewed through the lens of Nassim Nicholas Taleb"s book: The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable (Taleb, 2007). Such events were unexpected and unplanned for. The growing recognition and frequency of such incidents has reverberated across all organizations and pushed them to consider how to quickly restore the continuity of their operations and ability to function. Obviously, such continuity efforts include programs to support employees in their recovery to normal functioning and productivity. Further, business leaders are frequently being held accountable for their response to crisis events, with both inter- nal and external stakeholders expecting a humane and appropriate response – or being judged harshly if they fail to do so. One response to these tragic MCEs is an effort by the National Institute of Standards & Tech- nology (NIST) Public Safety Communications Response (PSCR) Division. They are hosting a meeting early in 2021 focused on !Building Apps for Mass Casualty Events and Triage” (NIST, 2021). In 2015, this author conducted a literature review focused on the Critical Incident Response field (Herlihy, 2015). This current paper explores and emphasizes the shifts that have occurred since that time and seeks to update how language related to practice has shifted and evolved, what new models of delivery have emerged, and new research published.
    • Critical Incident Response Via an EAP Lens: Literature Review

      Herlihy, Patricia A. (2015-08-29)
      This paper reviews the literature in critical incident response (CIR) as it intersects with the employee assistance field (EAP). A review of basic terminology is presented as well as various critical incident response models and pivotal research initiatives regarding the effectiveness of crisis intervention. A specific study illuminates the lack of evidence-based research of the effect on the organization arising from traumatic incidents. Then a brief discussion is offered about the current needs for collaboration of professionals around uniformity of definitions and interventions as well as further efforts to develop rigorous measures that will establish the effectiveness and efficiency of these interventions. Finally a series of next steps are enumerated for consideration to stimulate further thoughtful discussion, particularly as to how CIR relates to the EAP field.
    • Do EAPs Work?

      Attridge, Mark (Health Enhancement Research Organization, 2019-02-12)
      General Theme of Conference: Psychological Safety at Work: What Happens When More Voices Are Heard? The presentation reviews empirical studies to answer the following six questions of interest to employers: Q1 = How many employers have EAPs? Q2 = Why are EAPs needed? Q3 = Why do employers buy EAP? Q4 = Who buys EAP? Q5 = Where is the evidence on EAP Effectiveness? Q6 = How do companies get their EAP to be more effective?
    • EAP & Work-Life Integration: Research Update and Case Study of Tutoring

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association, 2015-09-30)
      My new column "Integration Insights" published quarterly in the Journal of Employee Assistance in 2015, recognizes that a majority of EAPs now also offer both work-life and wellness services. Collaboration with these other programs offer opportunities for EAPs to provide added business value. Implications are discussed for how program integration and expansion of services enhances the EAP partnership with multiple areas within the organization. Employer case studies are reviewed. This presentation also focuses on employee and family educational support and tutoring services as a new kind of partner program. Findings are presented from a literature review white paper and a survey of 345 employees concerning their child’s use of an online private tutoring service at a Fortune 100 company.
    • EAP and COVID-19 2021: Trends in Workplace Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Vendors of EAP Services

      Attridge, Mark (2021-09-22)
      Presentation of research literature review and 2021 survey study of employee assistance program industry on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on business, program use, traditional and technology-based service delivery options, and outcomes after service use. Discussion of future challenges and opportunities for EAPs who support employers.
    • EAP Impact On Health Care Claims Costs: What Are The Research Findings and What Do They Imply for Today’s EAPs?

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952- (EAP Technology Systems, 2010-02)
      This brief summarizes a review of the research literature relevant to the following questions regarding the business value of EAPs: Q1: Do EAPs have a significant positive impact on health care claims costs? Q2: If yes, what is the extent and nature of that positive impact? The research investigations addressing these kinds of questions are often described as “cost-offset” studies. In other words, are the costs related to EAP services and associated treatments provided to employees offset, at the very least, by decreases in health care claims costs? Implications for EAP are discussed.
    • Effectiveness of Human and Machine-based Counseling: Opportunities for Employee Assistance Programmes

      Attridge, Mark (2022-09-06)
      This presentation offers key findings from research. Survey data from EAPs in the USA (N=351) in year 2021 and from South Africa (N=28) in year 2022 is compared in this presentation. Part 1 examines the effectiveness of human counseling conducted using technology access modalities. Part 2 examines the effectiveness of machine or robot counseling tools using technology. Part 3 discusses opportunities in embracing the role of technology in the future of EAPs. Traditional live counseling can benefit from the integration of machine-based tools for mental health risk screening and prevention. Also, as these techno-tools focus exclusively on the individual user, they completely ignore the workplace. Thus, EAPs should re-emphasize the unique role that they can play in supporting the workplace – beyond just supporting the worker.
    • Employee Work Engagement: Best Practices for Employers - The Issue and Why it is Important to Business

      Attridge, Mark (Partnership for Workplace Mental Health/American Psychiatric Association Foundation, 2009-06)
      Literature review of employee work engagement and recommendations for best practices for employers. Only one in every five workers is highly engaged in their work. Increased employee engagement in work results in better employee productivity and loyalty. Companies with high employee engagement outperform low engagement companies in many areas of business success. Engagement can be improved by using more positive supervisory communication styles, offering workplace mental health services to employees, and by larger organizational-level changes. The experiences of AAA of Northern California, Nevada and Utah, Molson Coors, and Pitney Bowes provide relevant employer case examples.
    • Making the Business Case for Mental Health Treatment: New Research and Resources

      Attridge, Mark (Behavioral Healthcare, 2007-10)
      Text version of brief article in trade magazine on the importance of addressing mental health and addiction problems in the workplace. Review of studies on the need for workplace mental health services, their clinical effectiveness and the ROI of these outcomes for business. Includes a table of the Top 10 Resources for Making the Business Case for Workplace Mental Health Treatment. Also has list of 21 research references.
    • Measuring Outcomes of Peer Recovery Support Services: A Literature Review

      Wheeler, Jason; Mathews, Jenna Lee; Murray, Amber; Matlin, Kate (2020-07)
      The literature on outcomes and effectiveness of peer recovery support services in mental health and substance use disorder systems is nascent but growing. There is a greater body of research about peers in the field of mental health than in substance use. Generally, there is a lack of uniformity in the definitions of peers in the literature (O'Hagan, Cyr, McKee & Priest, 2010). There is also high variability and ambiguity about the roles that peers play and the scope of services they provide (Rogers, Kash-MacDonald & Brucker, 2009). Furthermore, measuring recovery tends to include such a wide variety of outcomes (e.g., symptom abstinence, sense of well-being, quality of life, social engagement, evidence of employment or enrollment in education, level of justice-system involvement, etc.) that there is lack of consensus among recovery scholars, administrators, and practitioners about what outcomes are the most salient to measuring both recovery and the efficacy of peers in supporting recovery efforts (Blash, Chan & Chapman, 2015). Despite the variance in definition and conceptualization, research supports the efficacy of peers across roles, settings, and implementations. This review aims to take the next step of identifying a cohesive and appropriate set of recovery outcomes that will broaden and solidify the promising base of literature. This literature review begins by situating the peer role into the context of recovery from mental health and substance use disorders by briefly describing the history of the advancement of peers in recovery fields. This context is followed by a more in-depth look at (1) how peers are defined by the literature, (2) the specifics of their role and fundamentals underlying their practice, and (3) considerations regarding the standardization of peers. The review then outlines common recovery outcomes typically measured for consumers with mental health or substance use disorders who receive peer recovery support services. The outcomes reviewed were categorized into two overarching domains. The review also briefly describes considerations for families and peers who deliver services, and stigma regarding disorders. Finally, recommendations of instruments used to measure recovery outcomes are provided.
    • Mental Health Apps & Their Efficacy Rates with Remote Use: Literature Review and EAP Industry Trend Survey Results

      Attridge, Mark (2021-10-04)
      Presentation to internal staff model EAPs in the United States.
    • Mental Health in the Labour Force: A Literature Review and Research GAP Analysis [White Paper & Slides]

      Attridge, Mark; Ricciuti, Joseph; Durant, Gregory; DeBortolli, Karen; Clarkson, Adam; Steacy, Ramona; Ausqui, José (Watson Wyatt Canada ULC, 2007-05)
      Mental health and alcohol abuse disorders are the sleeping giant of health care in modern society. These disorders create immense problems for the individuals with these conditions and for the companies who employ them. There is now a substantial research base that informs this important health challenge. This project was undertaken to synthesize the current research literature from North America in order to take stock of what is known today and to identify gaps in this knowledge. These gaps form the basis for recommendations for future research and for employer action. This project is being advanced by Homewood and the Global Business and Economic Roundtable on Addiction and Mental Health on behalf of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Also - findings presnted at the 2nd Canadian Congress on Research and Mental Health and the Workplace, Vancouver, BC, Canada (see SLIDES).
    • The Mental Health Parity and Addictions Equity Act: What Are the Research Implications for Employers and EAPs?

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952- (EAP Technology Systems, 2010-01)
      The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act passed into law on October 3, 2008. This federal law requires employers that offer mental health and addiction coverage to do so on the same terms and conditions as those benefits offered for medical and surgical care. This research brief describes the core provisions of the Act, the findings from research on the impact of parity on benefits use and costs, and the implications of this research for employers and employee assistance programs (EAPs).
    • The Need for EAPs: The Workplace Burden of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Problems

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Bjornson, Tom; Goplerud, Eric N.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; McPherson, Tracy L.; Paul, Rich; Routledge, Sandra; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Stephenson, Diane; et al. (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2009-09)
      This Research Note reviews themes from research literature on the prevalance and burden of mental health and substance abuse problems among workers to support the general need for why EAPs are needed.
    • Private Online Tutoring for Working Families: Literature Review and Employer Case Study

      Attridge, Mark; Miller, Kenneth (2014)
      This Note begins with a summary of key points from a recent white paper that reviews the research literature on offering private educational tutoring as a corporate benefit for employees and their family members. We describe what motivates employers to offer it as a benefit, the nature of the service, and the modern online delivery context. We then present highlights of a 2014 survey of 345 employees from a Fortune 100 company, all of which had one or more of their children as users of an online private tutoring service during the past year. Results are presented concerning a profile of the users, effects of service use on user scholastic outcomes, and the impact of family use of tutoring on workplace outcomes for the employee/parent (recruitment, absenteeism, presenteeism, and retention) and their general attitudes toward the company culture. This research suggests that private tutoring is highly valued by employee users and deserves further consideration as a new kind of benefit to augment the existing suite of EAP and Work-Life services.
    • Research Matters Column - Making the Business Case for EAPs: A Conceptual Framework

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2001)
      Brief article in Research Matters column. Review of research findings and strategic arguments for how to make the business case for employee assistance programs.
    • Research On Return-On-Investment: Which Models of EAP Are Generating the Most Significant ROI?

      Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Attridge, Mark (EAP Technology Systems, 2010-03)