• 20 Years of EAP Cost-Benefit Research - Part 1 of 3: Review of Classic 1990 McDonnell Douglas Study

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association, 2010)
      It has been two decades since the seminal study of the financial costs and benefits of the employee assistance program at the McDonnell Douglas Corporation. This study is credited with significantly advancing the business case for the field of employee assistance. Although it is considered a classic research work in the field, the study was not published in a scientific journal and therefore did not undergo a critical peer review. In this article, I will revisit the methodology and major findings of the McDonnell Douglas study and raise some critical questions about it.
    • Able-Minded: Return to Work and Accommodations for Workers on Disability Leave for Mental Disorders

      Attridge, Mark; Wallace, Scott, Ph.D. (Human Solutions, 2010-07)
      The 2010 report brings the most current and empirically validated perspectives to this very important issue. Mental health disability is the fastest growing health-related disability in Canada, and has claimed this title for over 20 years. These cases can be complex but typically respond well to appropriate treatment, coordinated stakeholder actions, and employer and organization support. Our hope is that this report will assist employers by illuminating the many advances in this area in recent years, and help organizations to be proactive and/or respond effectively when the need arises.
    • The Business Case Bibliography: 100 Review Papers on the Workplace Value of Mental Health, Addiction and EAP Services

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2011-12)
      This Note provides a list of 100 recent review papers on the topic of making the business case for providing mental health and addiction services to employees and their family members. This list has a special emphasis on employee assistance program (EAP) services, which already serve many work organizations and are often an effective source of referrals into mental health and addiction care treatment for more serious cases and for immediate short­‐term counseling for more minor cases. Most of these works examine financial issues of cost­‐benefit, cost­‐effectiveness and return on investment (ROI) as well as other behavior­‐ based outcomes of value to employers such as improvements in employee performance, employee engagement, positive work culture, risk management, work absence, work productivity/presenteeism, health care costs, disability costs, and turnover. The list includes works from the United States, Canada, and other Western countries.
    • The Business Value of Employee Assistance: A Review of the Art and Science of ROI (EAPA 2013 Keynote Address)

      Attridge, Mark (2013-10-19)
      Dr. Attridge reviews the science, strategies and future trends influencing the business value of employee assistance program (EAP) services. The talk opens by examining the empirical evidence relevant to the return on investment (ROI) for workplace behavioral health services. Over 1,000 individual research works now exist globally that support various aspects of the business case, including dozens of studies specifically on the outcomes and cost-offset value of EAP services. Next, the themes from this research are used to formulate different strategies for making the business case for EAP. Four conceptual models – called the Primary, Pareto, Productivity, and Partnership approaches to value – are each described and illustrated with data examples. These approaches work best when combined into a more comprehensive model that reflects the mix of services delivered by the EAP. Finally, several "big-picture" trends are identified in the areas of technology tools, outcome measures, healthy workplace culture and technology. These trends offer important new opportunities for increasing the business value of EAPs. Reference List included.
    • Completing the Business Case for EAPs.

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Hyde, Mark, M.A. (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2003-08)
      This paper reviews applied research and consulting strategies for demonstrating the business value of employee assistance programs that support the workplace and organizational risk management.
    • EAP Business Case Research: Human Capital Outcome Metrics

      Attridge, Mark (2005-08-10)
      This presentation provides an overview of research that examines the business case and outcomes from employee assistance and work/life services. The presentation has four areas. Part 1. EAP Business Value Model; Part 2. Integration Trends and Models; Part 3.Role of Partners in Driving Value; and Part 4. Measurement Implications
    • EAP Impact on Work, Stress and Health: National Data 1999-2002

      Attridge, Mark (2003-03)
      This project brings together applied naturalistic research data to assess the impact of employee assistance program (EAP) services on employee work, stress, and health. Clinical and follow-up self-report survey data from one EAP company (Optum®) is analyzed representing four large national samples (N > 1000 cases randomly selected each year for 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002). Results show that the majority of EAP clients report improvements in their work productivity and avoided absenteeism, stress, overall health and well-being and daily functioning after use of the service. The findings are found consistently in each year’s data and thus provide replication of results. Financial estimates of workplace outcomes are provided.
    • Hidden Hazards: The Business Response to Addictions in the Workplace

      Attridge, Mark; Wallace, Scott, Ph.D. (Human Solutions, 2009-07)
      The 2009 annual report tackles some of the myths and long-held beliefs about addictions and their impact on workplaces across Canada. We distill the key findings concerning addictions and present these in a manner that can lead to a clear understanding of the issues for HR/Benefits practitioners and other business leaders interested in contributing to building a healthy and safe workplace. In the tradition of previous reports, we review numerous empirical studies with an emphasis on Canadian data when available. We offer this report to our customers and other key stakeholders in an effort to bring the most current and empirically validated perspectives to this very important issue. Our hope is that this report will assist you by summarizing key elements on addictions which may prompt you to take action such as creating or updating a substance use policy, initiating an awareness campaign at all levels of your organization, or providing information about available support services.
    • Making the Business Case for EAP and Work/Life

      Attridge, Mark (2004-01-10)
      Presentation for EAP industry professionals. Review of research on the business case for EAP services. Focus on conceptual model developed by Attridge and Amaral with three components of business value: human capital, health claims and organizational.
    • Making the Business Case for Mental Health Treatment: New Research and Resources

      Attridge, Mark (Behavioral Healthcare, 2007-10)
      Text version of brief article in trade magazine on the importance of addressing mental health and addiction problems in the workplace. Review of studies on the need for workplace mental health services, their clinical effectiveness and the ROI of these outcomes for business. Includes a table of the Top 10 Resources for Making the Business Case for Workplace Mental Health Treatment. Also has list of 21 research references.
    • Mental Health in the Labour Force: A Literature Review and Research GAP Analysis [White Paper & Slides]

      Attridge, Mark; Ricciuti, Joseph; Durant, Gregory; DeBortolli, Karen; Clarkson, Adam; Steacy, Ramona; Ausqui, José (Watson Wyatt Canada ULC, 2007-05)
      Mental health and alcohol abuse disorders are the sleeping giant of health care in modern society. These disorders create immense problems for the individuals with these conditions and for the companies who employ them. There is now a substantial research base that informs this important health challenge. This project was undertaken to synthesize the current research literature from North America in order to take stock of what is known today and to identify gaps in this knowledge. These gaps form the basis for recommendations for future research and for employer action. This project is being advanced by Homewood and the Global Business and Economic Roundtable on Addiction and Mental Health on behalf of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Also - findings presnted at the 2nd Canadian Congress on Research and Mental Health and the Workplace, Vancouver, BC, Canada (see SLIDES).
    • A New Research-Driven Approach to Workplace Behavioral Health Services: Does This Present an Opportunity or a Challenge for EAPs?

      Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Attridge, Mark (EAP Technology Systems, 2010-04)
      A new research-driven approach is emerging to the delivery of behavioral health services in the workplace. This new approach involves actively targeting those employees, as identified by research, whose personal problems are most likely to negatively impact their work performance. Because this new approach focuses on high-risk/high-cost employees, it has the potential to yield a greater return-on-investment (ROI) to an organization than traditional workplace programs, such as employee assistance programs (EAPs).
    • A Quiet Crisis: The Business Case for Managing Employee Mental Health

      Attridge, Mark (Human Solutions, 2008-07)
      The 2008 report discusses the many issues related to mental illness and its impact on the workforce. It outlines the most common conditions that afflict large populations of employees, the barriers to proper diagnosis, the evidence-based treatment options and what employers can do to address this growing source of lost productivity and human suffering in their organizations.
    • Research Matters Column - Making the Business Case for EAPs: A Conceptual Framework

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2001)
      Brief article in Research Matters column. Review of research findings and strategic arguments for how to make the business case for employee assistance programs.
    • Restoring the Workplace: A Research-Driven Agenda for EAPs

      Attridge, Mark (2009-10-20)
      There are now hundreds of research studies on workplace mental health and addictions that can be applied to the development and delivery EAP services. Dr. Attridge will reveal key findings from over two dozen of his recent international literature reviews, scholarly book chapters, conference presentations, web-cast trainings, and business publications. When distilled down into key themes and translated into commonly understood business language, this body of scholarly work offers a clear agenda of what EAPs should be focusing on in the areas of service delivery and management. This evidence can be used to enhance the value of EAPs through building better marketing, operational practices, data measurement, and value reporting. All-day workshop.
    • Workplace Behavioral Health and EAP Services: Best Practices and Future Trends

      Attridge, Mark (2013-09-13)
      Over 1,000 research-based works are now available globally that document the need for, and the benefits of, workplace sponsored mental health and addiction support services. This body of research is summarized into key findings that represent best practices for the delivery and management of effective workplace behavioral health services. Key findings of a recent industry profile of 82 employee assistance program (EAP) vendors are also discussed throughout the talk. In addition, several trends are identified that offer opportunities for greater effectiveness of these services.
    • Workplace Mental Health: The Quiet Crisis in Canada

      Attridge, Mark; Thompson, Craig, M.Ed., M.B.A. (2008-05-29)
      Highlights from a 30-page report from 2008 written for a business audience that digests key findings and action strategies from over 80 research studies. PROBLEM: Many studies show that mental health and alcohol/drug conditions are common in Canadian society and yet most cases are under-diagnosed and under-treated. Research also shows that workers with untreated mental health conditions are costly to employers. THE SOLUTION: Other research documents that available treatments for mental health are both clinically- and cost-effective. There are proven strategies that employers can use to encourage the proper identification, treatment and prevention of mental health conditions. These strategies occur at three levels: the employee, the workplace, and the organization. THE CHALLENGE: Workplace mental health issues are important to business success and they can be effectively addressed. More employers need to adopt existing strategies and services.